Objective: To assess the action of onapristone, a type I antiprogestin, on prolactin (PRL) production by explant cultures of leiomyoma and myometrium. Design: Explant cultures of myometrium and leiomyomas from 3 premenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. Main Outcome Measures: PRL secretion measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: PRL secretion was decreased in leiomyomas by onapristone. There was no effect in the myometrium. There was no additional effect with the addition of the type II antiprogestin mifepristone (RU 486). Conclusion: PRL production is suppressed in leiomyomas but not in myometrium after treatment with onapristone in vitro. This suppression may serve as a marker for the clinical effectiveness of agents used in the treatment of leiomyomas.

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