Pathologic evaluation for adenomyosis in uterine specimens as well as demographic characterstics, health habits and risk factors for endometrial cancer were compared in 28 postmenopausal breast cancer patients with tamoxifen (TAM) treatment and in 11 similar patients without TAM treatment in order to determine the association between postmenopausal TAM exposure and the frequency of adenomyosis. The same comparison was also made between TAM-treated patients with adenomyosis and TAM-treated patients without adenomyosis. Adenomyosis was histologically diagnosed in 53.6% TAM-treated patients and in 18.2% non-TAM patients. Overall, there were no significant statistical differences in all parameters tested between the 2 groups, as well as between the TAM-treated patients with adenomyosis and the TAM-treated patients without adenomyosis. It can be concluded that adenomyosis was significantly more common among postmenopausal breast cancer patients who were treated with TAM as compared to similar patients without TAM treatment (p = 0.0186). This significant high rate of adenomyosis may be attributed to the continuous and unopposed exposure to TAM. It is, however, impossible to predict which postmenopausal breast cancer patient will develop adenomyosis after treatment with TAM.

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