Variations of the karyogram in aging livers depend, like those after necrotising liver lesions, on alterations of the perceeding mitoses. Two main forms are discernable: slight functional alterations of the achromatic apparatus and severe disturbances of its formation. The former manifest in impairment of telophasic cytokinesis, in anaphasic stickiness or metaphasic chromosomal aberration, respectively. Mainly they lead to double nuclei, occasionally to so-called pseudoamitoses. Alterations in spindle-formation occur in prophasis, monopolar mitosis, acentrical chromosomal scattering and mitotic collapse being the essential types. They give rise to large polyploid nuclei, possibly containing inclusions, or to irregular configurated commonly lateron confluencing karyomerites. Apart from these types mitoses of polyploid and double nucleated cells sometines develop multipolar or tripolar spindle figures, the causal genesis of which is discussed. Otherwise they can result in bipolar or monopolar giant achromatic apparatus. Consequences of their restitution are karyomerites of variable sizes, uniform large polyploid nuclei or – rarely- three or four identical nuclei within one single cell. Possible causes of the respective disturbances of the achromatic apparatus and their way leading to the various nuclear types will be explained and demonstrated as general phenomenons occuring in organs other than the liver too.

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