Introduction: Early-life factors were reported to exert influence on the health condition of individuals in the long-term. However, limited research explored the connection between early-life factors and multimorbidity in later years. Methods: We utilized the data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study to assess this possible association in the present cross-sectional study. Multimorbidity was determined based on 14 common chronic diseases included in the study. Logistic regression was employed to examine the link between early-life factors and subsequent multimorbidity. Results: Out of 7,578 participants who met the inclusion criteria for analysis, 3,765 (49.68%) were females. The mean age was 68.25 ± 6.70 years. Participants who rated their health during childhood as average (odds ratio [OR] 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63–0.96) or better [OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.57–0.91] were significantly less likely to experience multimorbidity in older life. By contrast, experiencing violence from two of the family members was significantly associated with future multimorbidity (OR [95% CI], 1.29 [1.04–1.60]). A superior family financial situation was also negatively associated with multimorbidity, with average (OR [95% CI], 0.72 [0.63–0.83]) and better off than average (OR [95% CI], 0.76 [0.62–0.93]). Discussion: Individuals with poor health status, inferior family socioeconomic status, or experienced violence from family members in childhood were more likely to suffer from multimorbidity in later life. Enhanced social monitoring of potentially adverse conditions in youngsters and targeted interventions could help mitigate the progression of multimorbidity in later life.