Background: Participation in activities is associated with a range of positive outcomes in adulthood. Research has shown that pain and physical symptoms are associated with less activity in older adults, whereas higher self-efficacy is associated with more activity. Such research tends to examine cross-sectional or long-term between-person change, limiting the opportunity to explore dynamic within-person processes that unfold over shorter time periods. Objectives: This study aimed to (1) replicate previous between-person associations of self-efficacy with engagement in activity and (2) examine whether daily variation in pain, physical symptoms, and self-efficacy corresponded with daily within-person variation in different types of activity. We predicted that participants would engage in less activity on days when they experienced more pain or physical symptoms than their average (a negative within-person association) and that participants would engage in more activity on days when self-efficacy was higher than average (a positive within-person association). Methods: This study used an online diary study to assess self- reported daily pain, physical symptoms, self-efficacy, and engagement in activity among 185 adults aged 51-84 years for up to 7 days. Multilevel modelling was used to examine whether between-person (average) and daily within-person variability in pain, physical symptoms, and self-efficacy were associated with social, physical, and mental activity. Results: In line with previous research, between-person self-efficacy was positively associated with social and physical activity. Supporting the hypotheses, within-person self-efficacy was also positively associated with social and physical activity. The results for pain and physical symptoms were less consistent. Between-person pain was positively associated with social activity. Age interactions indicated that within-person pain was negatively associated with social activity and positively associated with physical activity among older adults. Within-person physical symptoms were positively related to social and mental activity. Conclusion: Stable individual differences as well as short-term within-person variation in physical and psychological functioning are associated with day-to-day variation in activity. Between-person associations did not always reflect within-person associations (e.g., for pain). These complex associations may be influenced by a range of factors including the type of activity and how it is defined (e.g., specific activities and their difficulty), the type of physical symptoms experienced, and age.

1.
Menec VH: The relation between everyday activities and successful aging: a 6-year longitudinal study. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2003;58:S74-S82.
2.
Wang H-X, Karp A, Winblad B, Fratiglioni L: Late-life engagement in social and leisure activities is associated with a decreased risk of dementia: a longitudinal study from the Kungsholmen project. Am J Epidemiol 2002;155:1081-1087.
3.
Glass TA, de Leon CM, Marottoli RA, Berkman LF: Population based study of social and productive activities as predictors of survival among elderly Americans. BMJ 1999;319:478-483.
4.
Baltes PB, Smith J: New frontiers in the future of aging: from successful aging of the young old to the dilemmas of the fourth age. Gerontology 2003;49:123-135.
5.
Perkins JM, Multhaup KS, Perkins HW, Barton C: Self-efficacy and participation in physical and social activity among older adults in Spain and the United States. Gerontologist 2008;48:51-58.
6.
Thomas E, Peat G, Harris L, Wilkie R, Croft PR: The prevalence of pain and pain interference in a general population of older adults: cross-sectional findings from the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project (NorStOP). Pain 2004;110:361-368.
7.
Clark DO: Physical activity and its correlates among urban primary care patients aged 55 years or older. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 1999;54:S41-S48.
8.
Sliwinski MJ: Measurement-burst designs for social health research. Soc Personal Psychol Compass 2008;2:245-261.
9.
Kaplan MS, Newsom JT, McFarland BH, Lu L: Demographic and psychosocial correlates of physical activity in late life. Am J Prev Med 2001;21:306-312.
10.
Rosso AL, Taylor JA, Tabb LP, Michael YL: Mobility, disability, and social engagement in older adults. J Aging Health 2013;25:617-637.
11.
Janke M, Davey A, Kleiber D: Modeling change in older adults' leisure activities. Leis Sci 2006;28:285-303.
12.
Bandura A: Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychol Rev 1977;84:191-215.
13.
Bandura A: Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York, WH Freeman and Company, 1997.
14.
Jopp D, Hertzog C: Activities, self-referent memory beliefs, and cognitive performance: evidence for direct and mediated relations. Psychol Aging 2007;22:811-825.
15.
Langan ME, Marotta SA: Physical activity and perceived self-efficacy in older adults. Adultspan J 2000;2:29-43.
16.
Warner LM, Schüz B, Knittle K, Ziegelmann JP, Wurm S: Sources of perceived self-efficacy as predictors of physical activity in older adults. Appl Psychol Health Well Being 2011;3:172-192.
17.
Warner LM, Ziegelmann JP, Schüz B, Wurm S, Schwarzer R: Synergistic effect of social support and self-efficacy on physical exercise in older adults. J Aging Phys Act 2011;19:249-261.
18.
Hoffman L, Stawski RS: Persons as contexts: evaluating between-person and within-person effects in longitudinal analysis. Res Hum Dev 2009;6:97-120.
19.
Neupert SD, Allaire JC: I think I can, I think I can: examining the within-person coupling of control beliefs and cognition in older adults. Psychol Aging 2012;27:742-749.
20.
Dunton GF, Atienza AA, Castro CM, King AC: Using ecological momentary assessment to examine antecedents and correlates of physical activity bouts in adults age 50+ years: a pilot study. Ann Behav Med 2009;38:249-255.
21.
Hekler EB, Buman MP, Ahn D, Dunton G, Atienza AA, King AC: Are daily fluctuations in perceived environment associated with walking? Psychol Health 2012;27:1009-1020.
22.
Murphy SL, Kratz AL, Williams DA, Geisser ME: The association between symptoms, pain coping strategies, and physical activity among people with symptomatic knee and hip osteoarthritis. Front Psychol 2012;3:326.
23.
Charles ST: Strength and vulnerability integration (SAVI): a model of emotional well-being across adulthood. Psychol Bull 2010;136:1068-1091.
24.
Lachman ME, Neupert SD, Agrigoroaei S: The relevance of control beliefs for health and aging; in Schaie KW, Willis SL (eds): Handbook of the Psychology of Aging, ed 7. New York, Academic Press, 2011.
25.
Tighe CA, Dautovich ND, Allen RS: Regularity of daily activities buffers the negative impact of low perceived control on affect. Motiv Emot 2015;39:448-457.
26.
Bielak AAM: How can we not ‘lose it' if we still don't understand how to ‘use it'? Unanswered questions about the influence of activity participation on cognitive performance in older age - a mini-review. Gerontology 2010;56:507-519.
27.
Bielak AAM: Different perspectives on measuring lifestyle engagement: a comparison of activity measures and their relation with cognitive performance in older adults. Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 2016, Epub ahead of print.
28.
Cranford JA, Shrout PE, Iida M, Rafaeli E, Yip T, Bolger N: A procedure for evaluating sensitivity to within-person change: can mood measures in diary studies detect change reliably? Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2006;32:917-929.
29.
Almeida DM, Wethington E, Kessler RC: The Daily Inventory of Stressful Events: an interview-based approach for measuring daily stressors. Assessment 2002;9:41-55.
30.
Larsen RJ, Kasimatis M: Day-to-day physical symptoms: individual differences in the occurrence, duration, and emotional concomitants of minor daily illnesses. J Pers 1991;59:387-423.
31.
Schwarzer R, Jerusalem M: Generalized Self-Efficacy scale; in Weinman J, Wright S, Johnston M (eds): Measures in Health Psychology: A User's Portfolio. Causal and control beliefs. Windsor, NFER-Nelson, 1995, pp 35-37.
32.
Bailis DS, Segall A, Chipperfield JG: Two views of self-rated general health status. Soc Sci Med 2003;56:203-217.
33.
Snijders TAB, Bosker RJ: Multilevel Analysis: An Introduction to Basic and Advanced Multilevel Modeling, ed 2. London, SAGE, 2012.
34.
Diehl M, Hay EL: Risk and resilience factors in coping with daily stress in adulthood: the role of age, self-concept incoherence, and personal control. Dev Psychol 2010;46:1132-1146.
35.
Thoits PA: Mechanisms linking social ties and support to physical and mental health. J Health Soc Behav 2011;52:145-161.
36.
Mackichan F, Adamson J, Gooberman-Hill R: ‘Living within your limits': activity restriction in older people experiencing chronic pain. Age Ageing 2013;42:702-708.
37.
Focht B, Ewing V, Gauvin L, Rejeski WJ: The unique and transient impact of acute exercise on pain perception in older, overweight, or obese adults with knee osteoarthritis. Ann Behav Med 2002;24:201-210.
38.
Cohen J, Cohen P, West SG, Aiken LS: Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, ed 3. Mahwah, Erlbaum, 2013.
39.
Duke J, Leventhal H, Brownlee S, Leventhal EA: Giving up and replacing activities in response to illness. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2002;57:P367-P376.
40.
Paganini-Hill A, Kawas CH, Corrada MM: Activities and mortality in the elderly: the Leisure World Cohort Study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2011;66:559-567.
41.
Prince SA, Adamo KB, Hamel ME, Hardt J, Connor Gorber S, Tremblay M: A comparison of direct versus self-report measures for assessing physical activity in adults: a systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2008; 5:56.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.