Background: Worker productivity is central to the success of organizations such as healthcare institutions. However, both absenteeism and presenteeism impair that productivity. While various hospital studies have examined the prevalence of presenteeism and absenteeism and its associated factors among care workers, evidence from nursing home settings is scarce. Objective: To explore care workers' self-reported absenteeism and presenteeism in relation to nursing homes' psychosocial work environment factors. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study utilizing survey data of 3,176 professional care workers in 162 Swiss nursing homes collected between May 2012 and April 2013. A generalized estimating equation ordinal logistic regression model was used to explore associations between psychosocial work environment factors (leadership, staffing resources, work stressors, affective organizational commitment, collaboration with colleagues and supervisors, support from other personnel, job satisfaction, job autonomy) and self-reported absenteeism and presenteeism. Results: Absenteeism and presenteeism were observed in 15.6 and 32.9% of care workers, respectively. While absenteeism showed no relationship with the work environment, low presenteeism correlated with high leadership ratings (odds ratio [OR] 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.48) and adequate staffing resources (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.02-1.38). Conclusion: Self-reported presenteeism is more common than absenteeism in Swiss nursing homes, and leadership and staffing resource adequacy are significantly associated with presenteeism, but not with absenteeism.

Burton J: WHO healthy workplace framework and model: background and supporting literature and practice. Geneva, WHO Headquarters, 2010.
Böckerman P, Laukkanen E: Predictors of sickness absence and presenteeism: does the pattern differ by a respondent's health? J Occup Environ Med 2010;52:332-335.
Schultz AB, Edington DW: Employee health and presenteeism: a systematic review. J Occup Rehabil 2007;17:547-579.
Hemp P: Presenteeism: at work - but out of it. Harv Bus Rev 2004;82:49-58, 155.
Hansen CD, Andersen JH: Sick at work - a risk factor for long-term sickness absence at a later date? J Epidemiol Community Health 2009;63:397-402.
Böckerman P, Laukkanen E: What makes you work while you are sick? Evidence from a survey of workers. Eur J Public Health 2010;20:43-46.
Demerouti E, Le Blanc MP: Present but sick: a three-wave study on job demands, presenteeism and burnout. Career Dev Int 2009;14:50-68.
Gustafsson K, Marklund S: Consequences of sickness presence and sickness absence on health and work ability: a Swedish prospective cohort study. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2011;24:153-165.
Aronsson G, Gustafsson K: Sickness presenteeism: prevalence, attendance-pressure factors, and an outline of a model for research. J Occup Environ Med 2005;47:958-966.
Aronsson G, Gustafsson K, Dallner M: Sick but yet at work. An empirical study of sickness presenteeism. J Epidemiol Community Health 2000;54:502-509.
Elstad JI, Vabø M: Job stress, sickness absence and sickness presenteeism in Nordic elderly care. Scand J Public Health 2008;36:467-474.
Dellve L, Hadzibajramovic E, Ahlborg G Jr: Work attendance among healthcare workers: prevalence, incentives, and long-term consequences for health and performance. J Adv Nurs 2011;67:1918-1929.
Hansen CD, Anderson JH: Going ill to work: what personal circumstances, attitudes and work-related factors are associated with sickness presenteeism? Soc Sci Med 2008;67:956-964.
Szymczak JE, Smathers S, Hoegg C, Klieger S, Coffin SE, Sammons JS: Reasons why physicians and advanced practice clinicians work while sick: a mixed-methods analysis. JAMA Pediatr 2015;169:815-821.
Dhaini SR, Zúñiga F, Ausserhofer D, Simon M, Kunz R, De Geest S, Schwendimann R: Care workers health in Swiss nursing homes and its association with psychosocial work environment: a cross-sectional study. Int J Nurs Stud 2015, Epub ahead of print.
Leineweber C, Westerlund H, Hagberg J, Svedberg P, Alexanderson K: Sickness presenteeism is more than an alternative to sickness absence: results from the population-based SLOSH study. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2012;85:905-914.
Böckerman P, Ilmakunnas P: Interaction of working conditions, job satisfaction, and sickness absences: evidence from a representative sample of employees. Soc Sci Med 2008;67:520-528.
Pilette PC: Presenteeism in nursing: a clear and present danger to productivity. J Nurs Adm 2005;35:300-303.
d'Errico A, Viotti S, Baratti A, Mottura B, Barocelli AP, Tagna M, Sgambelluri B, Battaglino P, Converso D: Low back pain and associated presenteeism among hospital nursing staff. J Occup Health 2013;55:276-283.
Rantanen I, Tuominen R: Relative magnitude of presenteeism and absenteeism and work-related factors affecting them among health care professionals. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2011;84:225-230.
Letvak SA, Ruhm CJ, Gupta SN: Nurses' presenteeism and its effects on self-reported quality of care and costs. Am J Nurs 2012;112:30-38; quiz 48, 39.
Kristensen T: Sickness absence and work strain among Danish slaughterhouse workers: an analysis of absence from work regarded as coping behaviour. Soc Sci Med 1991;32:15-27.
Schwendimann R, Zúñiga F, Ausserhofer D, Schubert M, Engberg S, De Geest S: Swiss Nursing Homes Human Resources Project (SHURP): protocol of an observational study. J Adv Nurs 2014;70:915-926.
Lake ET: The nursing practice environment: measurement and evidence. Med Care Res Rev 2007;64(2 suppl):104S-122S.
Akhtar S, Lee JS: Confirmatory factor analysis and job burnout correlates of the Health Professions Stress Inventory. Psychol Rep 2002;90:243-250.
Wolfgang AP: The Health Professions Stress Inventory. Psychol Rep 1988;62:220-222.
Felfe J, Six B, Schmoock R, Knorz C: Questionnaire for the assessment of affective, calculative and normative commitment to the organization, the profession/activity and employment form (COBB); in Glöckner- Rist A (eds): Compilation of Social Science Items and Scales. CIS Version 14:00. Bonn: GESIS2010.
Sexton JB, Helmreich RL, Neilands TB, Rowan K, Vella K, Boyden J, Roberts PR, Thomas EJ: The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire: psychometric properties, benchmarking data, and emerging research. BMC Health Serv Res 2006;6:44.
Federal Statistical Office: Swiss Health Survey 2012. Switzerland: Federal Department of Home Affairs, 2012.
Maslach C, Jackson SE: The measurement of experienced burnout. J Occup Behav 1981;2:99-113.
West CP, Dyrbye LN, Sloan JA, Shanafelt TD: Single item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization are useful for assessing burnout in medical professionals. J Gen Intern Med 2009;24:1318-1321.
Roelen CA, Bültmann U, Groothoff J, van Rhenen W, Magerøy N, Moen BE, Pallesen S, Bjorvatn B: Physical and mental fatigue as predictors of sickness absence among Norwegian nurses. Res Nurs Health 2013;36:453-465.
Field A: Discovering Statistics Using SPSS, ed 3. London, Sage, 2009.
Enders KE: Applied Missing Data Analysis. New York, Guilford Press, 2010.
Bureau of Labor Statistics: Labor force statistics from the current population survey. Washington, United States Department of Labor, 2012.
Johns G: Presenteeism in the workplace: a review and research agenda. J Organ Behav 2010;31:519-542.
Clausen T, Nielsen K, Carneiro IG, Borg V: Job demands, job resources and long-term sickness absence in the Danish eldercare services: a prospective analysis of register-based outcomes. J Adv Nurs 2012;68:127-136.
Sanders K, Nauta A: Social cohesiveness and absenteeism: the relationship between characteristics of employees and short-term absenteeism within an organization. Small Group Res 2004;35:724-741.
Graf E, Cignacco E, Zimmermann K, Zúñiga F: Affective organizational commitment in Swiss nursing homes: a cross-sectional study. Gerontologist 2015, Epub ahead of print.
Davey MM, Cummings G, Newburn-Cook CV, Lo EA: Predictors of nurse absenteeism in hospitals: a systematic review. J Nurs Manag 2009;17:312-330.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.