Vertical clinging is a specialized form of locomotion characteristic of the primate family Callitrichidae. Vertical clinging requires these pronograde primates to maintain a vertical posture, so the protraction of their forelimbs must resist gravity. Since pronograde primates usually move as horizontal quadrupeds, we hypothesized that the supraspinatus muscle of vertical clingers would present specific characteristics related to the functional requirements imposed on the shoulder area by vertical clinging. To test this hypothesis, we quantified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction the mRNA transcripts of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms in the supraspinatus muscle of 15 species of pronograde primates, including vertical clingers. Our results indicate that the supraspinatus of vertical clingers has a specific expression pattern of the MHC isoforms, with a low expression of the transcripts of the slow MHC-I isoform and a high expression of the transcripts of the fast MHC-II isoforms. We conclude that these differences can be related to the particular functional characteristics of the shoulder in vertical clingers, but also to other anatomical adaptations of these primates, such as their small body size.