Studying the behavioural flexibility and adaptability of macaques to different habitats is one approach to designing a conservation plan. To determine the activity budget and feeding behaviour and evaluate the effects of seasonality in wild and human- altered habitats of Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis), we conducted this study in the Nagarjun forest of Shivapuri-Nagarjun National Park (SNNP) in central Nepal. We also updated the list of plant food items of Assamese macaques in the SNNP. Using scan and all-occurrence sampling, we recorded the diets and activities of Assamese macaques in 2 social groups, a wild-feeding group (WG) and a semi-provisioned group (SPG), throughout the year from August 2013 to July 2014. Both groups spent most of their time in feeding activities and were quite arboreal, but there were significant differences in the activity budgets and diets between the groups. Human food was the main component of the diet for the SPG, whereas it was fruit for the WG, indicating a normally frugivorous diet. Furthermore, the activity budget and diet composition varied in response to the season. These results indicate that provisioning alters the activity and feeding behaviour of macaques, and can also increase human-macaque conflict and disease transmission.

Ahsan MF (1994). Feeding ecology of the primates of Bangladesh. In Current Primatology, Volume I: Ecology and Evolution (Thierry B, Anderson JR, Roever JJ, Herrenschmidt N, eds.), pp 79-86. Strasbourg, Université Louis Pasteur.
Alami AE, Lavieren EV, Rachida A, Chait A (2012). Differences in activity budgets and diet between semiprovisioned and wild-feeding groups of the endangered Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) in the central High Atlas Mountains of Morocco. American Journal ofPrimatology 74: 210-216.
Altmann J, Muruthi P (1988). Differences in daily life between semi-provisioned and wild-feeding Baboons. American Journal of Primatology 15: 213-221.
Bashyal RR (2005). Study of Population and Feeding Ecology of Rhesus Monkey ( Macaca mulatta) in Shivapuri National Park, Kathmandu, Nepal. MSc thesis, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu.
Bhandari N, Chalise MK (2014). Habitat and distribution of Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla Linnaeus, 1758) in Nagarjun Forest of Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park, Nepal. Nepalese Journal of Zoology 2: 18-25.
Boonratana R, Chalise M, Das J, Htun S, Timmins RJ (2008). Macaca assamensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. (accessed August 20, 2016).
Chalise MK (1999). Report on Assamese monkeys (Macaca assamensis) of Nepal. Asian Primates 7: 7-11.
Chalise MK (2003). Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis) in Nepal. Primate Conservation 19: 99-107.
Chalise MK (2010). A study of Assamese monkey in Sebrusbeshi of Langtang National Park, Nepal. Journal of Natural History Museum 25: 54-61.
Chalise MK, Bhattarai GP, Pandey B (2013a). Ecology and behavior of Assamese monkey in Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park, Nepal. Journal of Natural History Museum 27: 12-24.
Chalise MK, Ogawa H, Pandey B (2013b). Assamese monkeys in Nagarjun Forest of Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park, Nepal. Tribhuvan University Journal XXVIII: 181-190.
Engel GA, Jones-Engel L, Schillaci MA, Suaryana KG, Putra A, Fuentes A, Henkel R (2002). Human exposure to herpesvirus B-seropositive macaques, Bali, Indonesia. EmergingInfectious Diseases 8: 789-795.
Fuentes A (2006). Patterns and context of human-macaque interactions in Gibraltar. In The Barbary Macaque: Biology, Management, and Conservation (Hodges JK, Cortes J, eds.), pp 169-184. Nottingham, Nottingham University Press.
Fuentes A, Kalchik S, Gettler L, Kwiatt A, Konecki M, Jones-Engel L (2008). Characterizing human-macaque interactions in Singapore. American Journal of Primatology 70: 879-883.
Gupta AK (2005). Dietary differences between two groups of Phayre's langur Trachypithecus phayrei in Tripura, India: responses to food abundances and human disturbance. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 102: 3-9.
Hsu MJ, Kao CC, Agoramoorthy G (2009). Interactions between visitors and Formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis) at Shou-Shan Nature Park, Taiwan. American Journal of Primatology 71: 214-222.
Jaman MF, Huffman MA (2013). The effect of urban and rural habitats and resource type on activity budgets of commensal rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Bangladesh. Primates 54: 49-59.
Jones-Engel L, Engel GA, Schillaci MA, Babo R, Froehlich J (2001). Detection of antibodies to selected human pathogens among wild and pet macaques (Macaca tonkeana) in Sulawesi, Indonesia. American Journal of Primatology 54: 171-178.
Jones-Engel L, Engel GA, Schillaci MA, Rompis A, Putra A, Suaryana KG, Fuentes A, Beer B, Hicks S, White R, Wilson B, Allan JS (2005). Primate-to-human retroviral transmission in Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11: 1028-1035.
Kamal KB, Boug A, Brain PF (1997). Effects of food provisioning on the behaviour of commensal hamadryas baboons, Papio hamadryas, at Al Hada Mountain in Western Saudi Arabia. Mammalia 14: 11-22.
Koirala S, Chalise M (2014). Feeding ecology of Assamese macaque (Macaca assamensis) in the Nagarjun Forest of Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park, Nepal. Nepalese Journal of Zoology 2: 31-38.
Malla R (2000). Diet Analysis of Hipposiderous armiger and Rhinolophus pursillus (Microchiroptera) of Nagarjun Cave. MSc thesis, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu.
Martin P, Bateson P (1993). Measuring Behavior. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
McCarthy MS, Matheson MD, Lester JD, Sheeran LK, Li JH, Wagner RS (2009). Sequences of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) and tourist behaviors at Mt. Huangshan, China. Primate Conservation 24: 145-151.
Mitra S (2002). Diet and feeding behavior of Assamese macaque (Macaca assamesis). Asian Primates 8: 10-14.
Molur S, Brandon-Jones D, Dittus W, Eudey A, Kumar A, Singh M, Feeroz MM, Chalise MK, Priya P, Walker S (2003). Status of South Asian Primates: Conservation Assessment and Management Plan (CAMP) Workshop Report. Coimbatore, Zoo Outreach Organisation and Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, South Asia.
Nagarkoti A (2006). Distribution Pattern, Habitat Preference and Food Habits of Barking Deer (Muntiacus muntjac Zimmermann) in Nagarjun Royal Forest. MSc thesis, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu.
O'Brien TG, Kinnaird MF (1997). Behaviour, diet and movement of the Sulawesi crested black macaque Macaca nigra. International Journal of Primatology 18: 321-351.
O'Leary H, Fa JE (1993). Effects of tourists on Barbary macaques at Gibraltar. Folia Primatologica 61: 77-91.
Pokhrel GK, Aryal PC, Shah KB, Rijal B, Suwal MK, Kharel SC, Paudel E, Dhamala MK (2011). Herpatofaunal diversity in Nagarjun Forest. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology 12: 358-365.
Poulsen JR, Clark CJ, Smith TB (2001). Seasonal variation in the feeding ecology of the grey-cheeked mangabey (Lothocebus albigena) in Cameroon. Americal Journal of Primatology 54: 91-105.
Regmi GR, Nekaris KAI, Kandel K, Nijman V (2013). Crop-raiding macaques: predictions, patterns and perceptions from Langtang National Park, Nepal. Endangered Species Research 20: 217-226.
Riley EP (2007). Flexibility in diet and activity pattern of Macaca tonkeana in response to anthropogenic habitat alteration. International Journal of Primatology 28: 107-133.
Sarkar P (2000). Ecology and Dynamics of Social Relationships of Assamese Macaque: Macaca assamensis (McClelland, 1839). PhD thesis, Gauhati University, Guwahati.
Sarkar P, Srivastava A, Dasgupta S, Bhattacharjee PC (2012). Activity profile of free ranging forest group of Assamese macaque. The Clarion 1: 59-67.
Schulke O, Pesek D, Whitman BJ, Ostner J (2011). Ecology of Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis) at Phu Khioe Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand. Journal of Wildlife in Thailand 18: 23-29.
Southwick CH, Siddiqi MF, Farooqui MY, Pal BC (1976). Effect of artificial feeding on aggressive behaviour of rhesus monkeys in India. Animal Behaviour 24: 11-15.
Srivastava A (1999). Primates of Northeast India. Bikaner, Megadiversity Press.
Sugiyama Y, Ohsawa H (1982). Population dynamics of Japanese monkeys with special reference to the effect of artificial feeding. Folia Primatologica 39: 238-263.
Thapa S, Shrestha S, Dahal S (2010). Detailed monitoring survey of bats and their conservation through radio awareness programme and outreach programme to school children in Kathmandu Valley. A Report on National Radio Awareness Programme for Bat Conservation in Nepal. A report submitted to Rufford Small Grants Foundation, UK.
Wada K (2005). The distribution pattern of rhesus and Assamese monkeys in Nepal. Primates 46: 115-119.
Wheatley BP, Harya Putra DK (1994). Biting the hand that feeds you: monkeys and tourists in Balinese monkey forest. Tropical Biodiversity 2: 317-327.
Wolfe ND, Switzer WM, Carr JK, Bhullar VB, Shanmugam V, Tamoufe U, Prosser AT, Torimiro JN, Wright A, Mpoudi-Ngole E, McCutchan FE, Brix DL, Folks TM, Burke DS, Heneine W (2004). Naturally acquired simian retrovirus infections in central African hunters. The Lancet 363: 932-937.
Zhou Q, Deng Z (1992). Dramatic consequences of food handouts to Macaca thibetana at Mount Emei, China. Folia Primatologica 58: 24-31.
Zhou QH, Wei H, Huang ZH, Huang CM (2011). Diet of the Assamese macaque Macaca assamensis in limestone habitats of Nonggang, China. Current Zoology 57: 18-25.
Zhou QH, Wei H, Tang HX, Huang ZG, Krzton A, Huang CM (2014). Niche separation of sympatric macaques, Macaca assamensis and M. mulatta, in limestone habitats of Nonggang, China. Primates 55: 125-137.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.