Studying the behavioural flexibility and adaptability of macaques to different habitats is one approach to designing a conservation plan. To determine the activity budget and feeding behaviour and evaluate the effects of seasonality in wild and human- altered habitats of Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis), we conducted this study in the Nagarjun forest of Shivapuri-Nagarjun National Park (SNNP) in central Nepal. We also updated the list of plant food items of Assamese macaques in the SNNP. Using scan and all-occurrence sampling, we recorded the diets and activities of Assamese macaques in 2 social groups, a wild-feeding group (WG) and a semi-provisioned group (SPG), throughout the year from August 2013 to July 2014. Both groups spent most of their time in feeding activities and were quite arboreal, but there were significant differences in the activity budgets and diets between the groups. Human food was the main component of the diet for the SPG, whereas it was fruit for the WG, indicating a normally frugivorous diet. Furthermore, the activity budget and diet composition varied in response to the season. These results indicate that provisioning alters the activity and feeding behaviour of macaques, and can also increase human-macaque conflict and disease transmission.

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