Morphometric variation of biological structures has been widely used to determine taxonomic affinities among taxa, and teeth are especially informative for both deep phylogenetic relationships and specific ecological signals. We report 2-dimensional geometric morphometrics (GM) analyses of occlusal crown surfaces of lower molars (M1, n = 141; M2, n = 158) of cercopithecoid primate species. A 12-landmark configuration, including cusp tips and 8 points of the molar crown contour, were used to evaluate patterns of variation in lower molar shape among cercopithecoid primates and to predict the taxonomic attribution of 2 archaeological macaques from Roman time periods. The results showed that the lower molar shape of cercopithecoid primates reflects taxonomic affinities, mostly at a subfamily level and close to a tribe level. Thus, the cusp positions and crown contour were important elements of the pattern related to interspecific variation. Additionally, the archaeological specimens, attributed to Macaca sylvanus based on osteological information, were classified using the GM molar shape variability of the cercopithecoid primates studied. The results suggest that their molar shape resembled both M. sylvanus and M. nemestrina, and species attribution varied depending on the comparative sample used.

Adams DC, Rohlf FJ, Slice D (2004). Geometric morphometrics: ten years of progress following the ‘revolution'. Italian Journal of Zoology 71: 5-16.
Anapol F, Lee S (1994). Morphological adaptation to diet in platyrrhine primates. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 94: 239-261.
Astúa D (2009). Evolution of scapula size and shape in didelphid marsupials (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae). Evolution 63: 2438-2456.
Bailey SE (2000). Dental morphological affinities among late Pleistocene and recent humans. Dental Anthropology 14: 1-8.
Bailey SE (2002). A closer look at Neandertal postcanine dental morphology. I. The mandibular dentition. New Anatomy 269: 148-156.
Bailey SE (2004). A morphometric analysis of maxillary molar crowns of middle-late Pleistocene hominins. Journal of Human Evolution 47: 183-198.
Bailey SE, Skinner MM, Hublin JJ (2011). What lies beneath? An evaluation of lower molar trigonid crest patterns based on both dentine and enamel expression. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 145: 505-518.
Benazzi S, Coquerell M, Fiorenza L, Bookstein F, Stanislav K, Kullmer O (2011). Comparison of dental measurement systems for taxonomic assignment of first molars. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 144: 342-354.
Benefit BR (1993). The permanent dentition and phylogenetic position of Victoriapithecus from Maboko Island, Kenya. Journal of Human Evolution 25: 83-172.
Benefit BR (1994). Phylogenetic, paleodemographic, and taphonomic implications of Victoriapithecus deciduous teeth from Maboko, Kenya. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 95: 277-331.
Benefit BR (1999). Biogeography, dietary specialization, and the diversification of African Plio-Pleistocene monkeys. In African Biogeography, Climate Change, and Human Evolution (Bromage T, Schrenk F, eds.), pp 172-188. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Bookstein FL (1989). Principal warps: thin-plate splines and the decomposition of deformations. Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 11: 567-585.
Bookstein FL (1991). Morphometric Tools for Landmark Data. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Bookstein FL (1996). Combining the tools of geometric morphometrics. In Advances in Morphometrics (Marcus LF, Corti M, Loy A, Naylor GJP, Slice D, eds.), pp 131-151. New York, Plenum Press.
Bunn JM, Ungar PS (2009). Dental topography and diets of four Old World monkey species. American Journal of Primatology 71: 466-477.
Bunn JM, Boyer DM, Lipman Y, Clair EM, Jernvall J, Daubechies I (2011). Comparing Dirichlet normal surface energy of tooth crowns, a new technique of molar shape quantification for dietary inference, with previous methods in isolation and in combination. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 145: 247-261.
Chatterjee H, Simon YW, Barnes I, Groves C (2009). Estimating the phylogeny and divergence times of primates using a supermatrix approach. BMC Evolutionary Biology DOI: 10.1186/1471.2148.9.259.
Constantino PJ, Lee JJ-W, Gerbig Y, Hartstone-Rose A, Talebi M, Lawn BR, Lucas PW (2012). The role of tooth enamel mechanical properties in primate dietary adaptation. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 148: 171-177.
Cooke SB (2011). Paleodiet of extinct platyrrhines with emphasis on the Caribbean forms: three-dimensional geometric morphometrics of mandibular second molars. Anatomical Record 294: 2073-2091.
Deane A (2012). Platyrrhine incisors and diet. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 148: 249-261.
Delson E (1973). Fossil colobine monkeys of the Circum-Mediterranean region. Parts 1 and 2. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Microfilms.
Delson E (1975). Evolutionary history of the Cercopithecidae. In Approaches to Primate Paleobiology: Contributions to Primatology (Szalay FS, ed.), pp 167-217. Basel, Karger.
Delson E (1980). Fossil macaques, phyletic relationships and a scenario of development. In The Macaques: Studies in Ecology, Behavior, and Evolution (Lindburg DG, ed.), pp 10-30. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Delson E (1996). The oldest monkeys in Asia. In Evolution of Asian Primates (Takenaka O, ed.), p 40. Inuyama, Kyoto University Primate Research Institute.
Delson E, Andrews P (1975). Evolution and interrelationships of the Catarrhine primates. In Phylogeny of the Primates (Luckett WP, Szalay FS, eds.), pp 405-446. New York, Plenum Press.
Dennis E, Slice D (2007). Geometric morphometrics. Annual Review of Anthropology 36: 261-281.
Eck GG (1987). Theropithecus oswaldi from the Shungura Formation, Lower Omo Basin, Southwestern Ethiopia. In Les Faunes Plio-Pleistocènes de la Vallée de l'Omo (Ethiopie). Tome 3, cercopithecidae de la Formation de Shungura (Coppens Y, Howell FC, eds.), pp 123-139. Cahiers de Paleontologie, Travaux de Paléontologie East-Africaine. Paris, Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
Eck GG, Jablonski NG (1987). The skull of Theropithecus brumpti as compared with those of other species of the genus Theropithecus. In Les Faunes Plio-Pleistocènes de la Vallée de l'Omo (Ethiopie). Tome 3, cercopithecidae de la Formation de Shungura (Coppens Y, Howell FC, eds.), pp 11-122. Cahiers de Paleontologie, Travaux de Paléontologie East-Africaine. Paris, Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
Fabre PH, Rodrigues A, Douzery EJP (2009). Patterns of macroevolution among primates inferred from a supermatrix of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53: 808-825.
Galbany J, Estebaranz F, Martínez LM, Romero A, De Juan J, Turbón D, Pérez-Pérez A (2006). Comparative analysis of dental enamel polyvinylsiloxane impression and polyurethane casting methods for SEM research. Microscopy Research and Technique 69: 246-252.
Galbany J, Martínez LM, Pérez-Pérez A (2004). Tooth replication techniques, SEM imaging and microwear analysis in primates: methodological obstacles. Anthropologie 41: 5-12.
Gómez-Robles A, Martinón-Torres M, Bermúdez de Castro JM, Margvelashvili A, Bastir M, Arsuaga A, Pérez-Pérez A, Estebaranz F, Martínez L (2007). A geometric morphometric analysis of hominin upper first molar shape. Journal of Human Evolution 53: 272-285.
Gómez-Robles A, Martinón-Torres M, Bermúdez de Castro JM, Prado L, Sarmiento S, Arsuaga JL (2008). Geometric morphometric analysis of the crown morphology of the lower first premolar of hominins, with special attention to Pleistocene Homo. Journal of Human Evolution 55: 627-638.
Gómez-Robles A, Olejniczak J, Martinón-Torres M, Prado-Simón L, Bermúdez de Castro JM (2011). Evolutionary novelties and losses in geometric morphometrics: a practical approach through hominin molar morphology. Evolution 65: 1772-1790.
Goodman M, Porter CA, Czelusniak J, Page SL, Schneider H (1998). Toward a phylogenetic classification of primates based on DNA evidence complemented by fossil evidence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 9: 585-598.
Guàrdia J, Maragall M, Mercadal O, Olesti O, Galbany J, Nadal J (2007). Enterrament d'època tardoromana d'un macaco amb aixovar al jaciment de Les Colomines (Llívia, La Cerdanya). Empúries 55: 199-227.
Hillson S (2005). Teeth. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Ivanović A, Sotiropoulos K, Džukić G, Kalezić ML (2009). Skull size and shape variation versus molecular phylogeny: a case study of alpine newts (Mesotriton alpestris, Salamandridae) from the Balkan Peninsula. Zoomorphology 128: 157-167.
Jernvall J, Jung HS (2000). Genotype, phenotype, and developmental biology of molar tooth characters. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 43: 171-190.
Jernvall J, Kettunen P, Karavanova I, Martin LB, Thesleff I (1994). Evidence for the role of the enamel knot as a control center in mammalian tooth cusp formation: non-dividing cells express growth stimulating Fgf-4 gene. The International Journal of Developmental Biology 38: 463-469.
Jernvall J, Thesleff I (2000). Reiterative signaling and patterning during mammalian tooth morphogenesis. Mechanisms of Development 92: 19-29.
Kangas AT, Evans AR, Thesleff I, Jernvall J (2004). Nonindependence of mammalian dental characters. Nature 432: 211-214.
Kay RF (1975a). The functional adaptations of primate molar teeth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 43: 195-216.
Kay RF (1975b). Allometry and early hominids. Science 189: 63.
Kay RF (1978). Molar structure and diet in extant Cercopithecoidea. In Development, Function, and Evolution of Teeth (Butler PM, Joysey K, eds.), pp 309-339. New York, Academic Press.
Kay RF, Hylander WL (1978). The dental structure of mammalian folivores with special reference to Primates and Phalangeroidea (Marsupialia). In The Ecology of Arboreal Folivores (Montgomery GG, ed.), pp 173-191. Washington, Smithsonian Institution Press.
Kinzey WG (1984). The dentition of the pygmy chimpanzee, Pan paniscus. In The Pygmy Chimpanzee: Evolutionary Biology and Behavior (Susman RL, ed.), pp 65-88. New York, Plenum Press.
Klingenberg CP (2010). Evolution and development of shape: integrating quantitative approaches. Nature Reviews Genetics 11: 623-635.
Kovarovic K, Aiello LC, Cardini A, Lockwood CA (2011). Discriminant functions analyses in archaeology: are classification rates too good to be true? Journal of Archaeological Science 38: 3006-3018.
Koyabu DB, Endo H (2010). Craniodental mechanics and diet in Asian colobines: morphological evidence of mature seed predation and sclerocarpy. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 142: 137-148.
Liu W, Clarke R, Song X (2010). Geometric morphometric analysis of the early Pleistocene hominin teeth from Jianshi, Hubey Province, China. Science China Earth Sciences 53: 1141-1152.
Lockwood CA (2007). Adaptation and functional integration in primate phylogenetics. Journal of Human Evolution 52: 490-503.
Lockwood CA, Kimbel WH, Lynch JM (2004). Morphometrics and hominoid phylogeny: Support for a chimpanzee-human clade and differentiation among great ape subspecies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101: 4356-4360.
Lucas PW, Teaford MF (1994). Functional morphology of colobine teeth. In Colobine Monkeys: Their Ecology, Behaviour and Evolution (Davies AG, Oates JF, eds.), pp 173-203. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Lynn C (2003). Navan Fort: Archaeology and Myth. Dublin, Wordwell.
Macholán M (2006). A geometric morphometric analysis of the shape of the first upper molar in mice of the genus Mus (Muridae, Rodentia). Journal of Zoology 270: 672-681.
Martinón-Torres M, Bastir M, Bermudez de Castro JM, Gómez A, Sarmiento S, Muela A, Arsuaga JL (2006). Hominin lower second premolar morphology: evolutionary inferences through geometric morphometric analysis. Journal of Human Evolution 50: 523-533.
McGraw WS, Fleagle JG (2006). Biogeography and evolution of the Cercocebus-Mandrillus clade: evidence from the face. In Primate Biogeography: Progress and Prospects (Lehman S, Fleagle JG, eds.), pp 201-224. New York, Springer.
Mitteroecker P, Gunz P (2009). Advances in geometric morphometrics. Evolutionary Biology 36: 235-247.
Modolo L, Salzburger W, Martin RD (2005). Phylogeography of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) and the origin of the Gibraltar colony. Population Biology 102: 7392-7397.
O'Higgins P (2000). Advances in approaches to the study of morphological variation in the fossil hominid record: biology, landmarks and geometry. Journal of Anatomy 197: 103-120.
Olesti O, Guàrdia J, Maragall M, Mercadal O, Galbany J, Nadal J (2013). Controlling the Pyrenees: a macaque's burial from the late antiquity in Iulia Libica (Llívia, La Cerdanya, Spain). In War and Warfare in Late Antiquity: Current Perspectives (Sarantis A, Christie N, eds.), pp 703-731. Leiden, Brill.
Perelman P, Johnson WE, Roos C, Seuanez HN, Horvath JE (2011). A molecular phylogeny of living primates. PLoS Genetics DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001342.
Pilbrow V (2006). Population systematics of chimpanzees using molar morphometrics. Journal of Human Evolution 51: 646-662.
Pilbrow V (2010). Dental and phylogeographic patterns of variation in gorillas. Journal of Human Evolution 59: 16-34.
Plavcan JM (1993). Canine size and shape in male anthropoid primates. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 92: 201-216.
Polly PD (2001). On morphological clocks and paleophylogeography: towards a timescale for Scorex hybrid zones. Genetica 112/113: 339-357.
Richtsmeier JT, Burke Deleon V, Lele SR (2002). The promise of geometric morphometrics. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 45: 63-91.
Rohlf FJ (1995). Multivariate analysis of shape using partialwarp scores. In Proceedings in Current Issues in Statistical Shape Analysis (Mardia KV, Gill CA, eds.), pp 154-158. Leeds, University of Leeds.
Rohlf FJ (1996). Morphometric spaces, shape components and the effects of linear transformations. In Advances in Morphometrics (Marcus LF, Corti M, Loy A, Naylor GJP, Slice DE, eds.), pp 117-129. New York, Plenum Press.
Rohlf FJ (1998). On applications of geometric morphometrics to studies of ontogeny and phylogeny. Systematic Biology 47: 147-158.
Rohlf FJ (2004). tpsDig, version 1.40. tps Series. New York, Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York at Stony Brook.
Rohlf FJ (2007). tpsRelw, version 1.45. tps Series. New York, Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York at Stony Brook.
Rohlf FJ (2009). tpsRegr, version 1.37. tps Series. New York, Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York at Stony Brook.
Rohlf FJ, Marcus LE (1993). A revolution in morphometrics. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8: 129-132.
Rosenberger AL (2011). Evolutionary morphology, platyrrhine evolution, and systematics. Anatomical Record 294: 1955-1974.
Rosenberger AL, Kinzey WG (1976). Functional patterns of molar occlusion in platyrrhine primates. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 45: 281-298.
Rosenberger AL, Halenar L, Cooke SB (2011). The making of platyrrhine semifolivores: models for the evolution of folivory in primates. Anatomical Record 294: 2112-2130.
Salazar-Ciudad I, Jernvall J (2010). A computational model of teeth and the developmental origins of morphological variation. Nature 464: 583-586.
Singleton M, Rosenberger AL, Robinson C, O'Neill R (2011). Allometric and metameric shape variation in Pan mandibular molars: a digital morphometric analysis. TheAnatomical Record 294: 322-334.
Skinner MM, Evans A, Smith T, Jernvall J, Tafforeau P, Kupczik K, Olejniczak AJ, Rosas A, Radovčić J, Thackeray JF, Toussaint M, Hublin JJ (2010). Contributions of enamel-dentine junction shape and enamel deposition to primate molar crown complexity. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 142: 157-163.
Skinner MM, Gunz P, Wood BA, Boesch C (2009). Discrimination of extant Pan species and subspecies using the enamel-dentine junction morphology of lower molars. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 10: 234-243.
Slice DE (2005). Modern morphometrics. In Modern Morphometrics in Physical Anthropology (Slice DE, ed.), pp 1-45. New York, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.
Slice DE (2007). Geometric morphometrics. Annual Review of Anthropology 36: 261-281.
Spencer MA (1998). Force production in the primate masticatory system: electromyographic tests of biomechanical hypotheses. Journal of Human Evolution 34: 25-54.
Spencer MA (2003). Tooth-root form and function in platyrrhine seed-eaters. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 122: 325-335.
SPSS Inc. (2006). SPSS 15.0 command syntax reference. Chicago, SPSS Inc.
Steiper M, Young M (2006). Primate molecular divergence dates. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41: 384-394.
Tosi AJ, Detwiler KM, Disotell TR (2005). X-chromosomal window into the evolutionary history of the guenons (Primates: Cercopithecini). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 58-66.
Tosi AJ, Melnick DJ, Disotell TR (2004). Sex chromosome phylogenetics indicates a single transition to terrestriality in the guenons (tribe Cercopithecini). Journal of Human Evolution 46: 223-237.
Tosi AJ, Morales JC, Melnick DJ (2000). Comparison of Y-chromosome and mtDNA phylogenies leads to unique inferences of macaque evolutionary history. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 17: 133-144.
Ungar PS, Kay RF (1995). The dietary adaptations of European Miocene catarrhines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92: 5479-5481.
Vidarsdottir US, O'Higgins P, Stringer C (2002). A geometric morphometric study of regional differences in the ontogeny of the modern human facial skeleton. Journal of Anatomy 201: 211-229.
White J (2009). Geometric morphometric investigation of molar shape diversity in modern lemurs and lorises. The Anatomical Record 292: 701-719.
Wright BW (2005). Craniodental biomechanics and dietary toughness in the genus Cebus. Journal of Human Evolution 48: 473-492.
Wright BW, Ulibarri L, O'Brien J, Sadler B, Prodhan R, Covert HH, Nadler T (2008). It's tough out there: variation in the toughness of ingested leaves and feeding behavior among four Colobinae in Vietnam. International Journal of Primatology 29: 1455-1466.
Xing J, Wang H, Han K, Ray DA, Huang CH, Chemnick LG, Stewart CB, Disotell TR, Ryder OA, Batzer MA (2005). A mobile element based phylogeny of Old World monkeys. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 37: 872-880.
Zelditch ML, Swiderski DL, Sheets HD, Fink WL (2004). Geometric Morphometrics for Biologists: A Primer. San Diego, Elsevier Academic Press.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.