Several species of primates, including owl monkeys (Aotus spp.), anoint by rubbing their fur with odiferous substances. Previous research has shown that capuchin monkeys (Cebus and Sapajus) anoint socially by rubbing their bodies together in groups of two or more while anointing. Owl monkeys housed at the DuMond Conservancy have been observed to anoint over the last 10 years, and we report detailed new information on the anointing behavior of this population, including descriptions of social anointing which occurs frequently. We first investigated the occurrence of self-anointing in 35 Aotus spp. presented with millipedes. Detailed descriptions regarding body regions anointed were obtained for all anointers (n = 28). The median duration for a self-anointing bout was 3.6 min (range from approx. 2 s to 14.15 min). While the latency and length of anointing bouts showed considerable interindividual differences, no statistically significant differences were found between sexes, wild- or captive-born owl monkeys or across age groups. However, we found the lower back and tail were anointed at a rate significantly greater than other body parts, but there were no differences in these patterns across sex or wild- or captive-born owl monkeys. More recently, social anointing was investigated in 26 Aotus spp. presented with millipedes, of which half were observed to anoint socially. The average duration for all social anointing bouts was 72.88 s, with a median duration of 30 s (range 5-322 s). A detailed ethogram was also generated that included behaviors that were performed while anointing, including facial expressions and vocalizations. The intraindividual variability for 8 monkeys used in both investigations is discussed. These findings extend our knowledge of anointing and confirm the existence of social anointing in another genus with a unique biology (nocturnal and socially monogamous) distinct from capuchins.

Baker M (1996). Fur rubbing: use of medicinal plants by capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus). American Journal of Primatology 38: 263-270.
Birkinshaw CR (1999). Use of millipedes by black lemurs to anoint their bodies. Folia Primatologica 70: 170-171.
Campbell CJ (2000). Fur-rubbing behavior in free-ranging black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in Panama. American Journal of Primatology 51: 205-208.
Carreno RA, Ordosch D, Koltek JK, Hamill DR, Tuhela L (2013). First United States records of the rhigonematid genera Heth and Ruizia (Nematoda: Rhigonematida) from the introduced millipede, Anadenobolus monilicornis (Diplopoda: Rhinocricidae) in Key Largo, Florida, USA. Comparative Parasitology 80: 225-232.
D'Havé H, Scheirs J, Verhagen R, De Cohen W (2005). Gender, age and seasonal dependent self-anointing in the European hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus. Acta Theriologica 50: 167-173.
Evans S, Weldon P, Giovanetti J, Moody C, Vicaria E (2003). Anointing in owl monkeys. American Journal of Primatology 60: 135.
Fernandez-Duque E (2012). Studies of captive and wild owl monkeys. International Zoo Yearbook 46: 80-94.
Gompper ME, Holyman AM (1993). Grooming with Trattinnickia resin: possible pharmaceutical plant use by coatis in Panama. Journal of Tropical Ecology 9: 533-540.
Groskin H (1943). Scarlet tanagers ‘anting'. Auk 60: 55-59.
Kelso L, Nice MM (1963). A Russian contribution to anting and feather mites. WilsonBulletin 75: 23-26.
Kobayashi TM, Watanabe M (1981). Snake-scent application behaviour in the Siberian chipmunk Eutamias sibiricus asiaticus. Proceedings of the Japan Academy 57B: 141-145.
Laska M, Bauer V, Hernandez Salazar LT (2007). Self-anointing behavior in free-ranging spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in Mexico. Primates 48: 160-163.
Leca JB, Gunst N, Petit O (2007). Social aspects of fur-rubbing in Cebus capucinus and C. apella. International Journal of Primatology 28: 801-817.
Lynch Alfaro JW, Matthews L, Boyette AH, Macfarlan SJ, Phillips KA, Falotico T, Ottoni E, Verderane M, Izar P, Schulte M, Melin A, Fedigan L, Janson C, Alfaro ME (2012). Anointing variation across wild capuchin populations: a review of maternal preferences, bout frequency and anointing sociality in Cebus and Sapajus. American Journal of Primatology 73: 1-16.
Martin PR, Bateson PPG (1993). Measuring Behavior: An Introductory Guide. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Meunier H, Petit O, Deneubourg J-L (2008). Social facilitation of fur rubbing behavior in white-faced capuchins. American Journal of Primatology 70: 161-168.
Morrogh-Bernard HC (2008). Fur-rubbing as a form of self-medication in Pongo pygmaeus. International Journal of Primatology 29: 1059-1064.
Moynihan M (1964). Some behavior patterns of platyrrhine monkeys I. The night monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 146: 1-84.
Paukner A, Suomi SJ (2008). The effects of fur rubbing on the social behavior of tufted capuchin monkeys. American Journal of Primatology 70: 1007-1012.
Paukner A, Suomi SJ (2012). Social after-effects of fur rubbing in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): increased antagonism and reduced affiliation. Primates 53: 297-301.
Potter EF (1970). Anting in wild birds, its frequency and probable purpose. Auk 87: 692-713.
Quinn JP (2004). Fur Rubbing Behavior in a Captive Group of Cebus apella apella Monkeys. Master's thesis, California State University, Fullerton.
Revis HC, Waller DA (2004). Bactericidal and fungicidal activity of ant chemicals on feather parasites: an evaluation of anting behavior as a method of self-medication in songbirds. Auk 121: 1262-1268.
Rey JR, Nishimura N, Wagner B, Braks MAH, O'Connell SM, Lounibos LP (2006). Habitat segregation of mosquito arbovirus vectors in South Florida. Journal of Medical Entomology 43: 1134-1141.
Simmons KEL (1966). Anting and the problem of self-stimulation. Journal of Zoology(London) 146: 145-162.
Valderrama X, Robinson JG, Attygalle AB, Eisner T (2000). Seasonal anointment with millipedes in a wild primate: a chemical defense against insects? Journal of Chemical Ecology 26: 2781-2790.
Weldon PJ (2004). Defensive anointing: extended chemical phenotype and unorthodox ecology. Chemoecology 14: 1-4.
Weldon PJ, Aldrich JR, Klun JA, Oliver JE, Debboun M (2003). Benzoquinones from millipedes deter mosquitoes and elicit self-anointing in capuchin monkeys (Cebus spp. ). Naturwissenschaften 90: 301-304.
Whitaker LM (1957). A résumé of anting, with particular reference to a captive Orchard Oriole. Wilson Bulletin 69: 195-262.
Wolovich CK, Evans S (2007). Sociosexual behavior and chemical communication of Aotus nancymaae. International Journal of Primatology 28: 1299-1313.
Wolovich CK, Feged A, Evans S, Green SM (2006). Social patterns of food sharing in monogamous owl monkeys. American Journal of Primatology 68: 1-12.
Wright P (1985). The Costs and Benefits of Nocturnality for Aotus trivirgatus (the Night Monkey). Dissertation, City University of New York.
Zito M, Evans S, Weldon PJ (2003). Owl monkeys (Aotus spp.) self-anoint with plants and millipedes. Folia Primatologica 74: 159-161.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.