Rehabilitation and release have become central to the management and welfare of primate species in South Africa such as the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops). However, limited research means that it is unknown whether rehabilitation is a successful management strategy for this species. This study describes the release of a troop of rehabilitated vervet monkeys and evaluates the results of 1 year of post-release monitoring. The released animals exhibited wild behaviours and established a home range. Survival could not be adequately evaluated due to the high number of untraceable animals, and troop composition was significantly different from that of wild troops. Improvement may be gained by radio-collaring more animals using improved technology, ensuring that troop composition is comparable to wild troops, excluding ex-pets from re-introduction and a more detailed assessment of the release site.