Weaning conflict may represent an evolutionary conflict of interest between parent and offspring, an honest signal of need on the part of a weanling, or both. Accentuated lines visible in histological sections of teeth are indicators of stress during enamel formation and have been hypothesised to form in baboon teeth during weaning. We analysed growth increments in 5 tooth sections from 2 Ugandan baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis), using polarised light microscopy, to determine when stresses occurred during the weaning process. Dietary transitions were reconstructed using normalised strontium intensities (Sr/Ca) in enamel. Accentuated lines were cross-matched between teeth from the same animal and plotted by month. The highest frequency of stress was experienced at around 6 months in 1 baboon, coinciding with an inferred reduction in suckling frequency, and at 11 months in another, coinciding with the inferred cessation of suckling. Because accentuated lines appear to indicate weaning stress at dietary transitions, weaning conflict may represent an honest signal of need on the part of the weanling.

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