The chronology of tooth emergence is often used to examine the growth and development of individuals and to compare life histories across species. Emergence patterns are also used to age animals and to infer life history influences for extinct species. However, comparative studies of primates are hindered by a lack of dental development data for many species. Here we describe the sequences and timing of tooth emergence for a large sample of semi-free-ranging mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) and compare this with other life history variables for this species. Deciduous dentition emerged in the sequence i1 i2 c p3 p4. The augmented sequence (including information about variability in emergence sequence) was i1 i2 [c p3] p4 for the female maxilla and the male mandible, and i1 i2 c p3 p4 for the female mandible and the male maxilla. Deciduous dentition was complete by 5.0 months in females and 6.4 months in males. The permanent dentition began to emerge at 26 months, and complete adult dentition had emerged by 68 months for males and 85 months for females. Sex differences occurred in the augmented eruption sequences: females M1 I1 I2 [M2 C] P3 P4 M3, males M1 I1 [I2 M2] [P4 = P3 = C] M3. The order of tooth eruption and the occurrence of sequence polymorphisms were very similar to those observed for baboons and macaques. Comparison with life history variables showed that mandrills have complete deciduous dentition at weaning, females possess both adult incisors and M1 when they first reproduce, but still have deciduous canines and premolars, and that both sexes have full adult dentition before they attain their full adult stature and mass.

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