Introduction: Although a number of studies have been conducted to investigate nasalance scores of speakers of different languages, little research has examined the nasalance characteristics of second language learners. Objective: The goal of the current study was to examine whether English nasalance values of Mandarin Chinese speakers are similar to those of native English speakers, examining the potential effect of the first language on the nasalance scores of the second language production. Methods: Thirty-two adults (16 Mandarin Chinese speakers and 16 native English speakers) with a normal velopharyngeal anatomy participated. Nasalance scores of various speech stimuli were obtained using a nasometer and compared between the 2 groups. Results and Conclusions: Chinese learners of English produced higher nasalance scores than native English speakers on prolonged vowel /i/ and /a/, the syllable “nin,” and non-nasal sentences and passages. The first language effect on nasalance of the second language found in the current study suggests the importance of linguistic consideration in the clinical evaluation of resonance.

1.
Mossey
PA
,
Shaw
WC
,
Munger
RG
,
Murray
JC
,
Murthy
J
,
Little
J
.
Global oral health inequalities: challenges in the prevention and management of orofacial clefts and potential solutions. Adv Dent Res. 2011. Kling RR, Taub PJ, Ye X, Jabs EW. Oral clefting in China over the last decade: 205,679 patients
.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open
.
2014
.2169-7574
2.
Kling RR, Taub PJ, Ye X, Jabs EW. Oral clefting in China over the last decade: 205,679 patients. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2014 Nov;2(10):e236.
3.
Pua
E
,
Holt
Y
,
Kollara
L
,
Rangarathnam
B
,
Fang
X
,
Perry
JL
.
Evaluating Nasalance Values Among Bilingual Mandarin-English Speakers
.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J
.
2019
Apr
;
56
(
4
):
462
70
.
[PubMed]
1055-6656
4.
Kaye
A
,
Che
C
,
Chew
WL
,
Stueve
EA
,
Jiang
S
.
Cleft Care of Internationally Adopted Children From China
.
Cleft Palate-Craniofacial J.
;
2019
.
5.
Watterson
T
,
McFarlane
SC
,
Wright
DS
.
The relationship between nasalance and nasality in children with cleft palate
.
J Commun Disord
.
1993
Apr
;
26
(
1
):
13
28
.
[PubMed]
0021-9924
6.
Kummer
A.
Cleft palate and craniofacial anomalies: effects on speech and resonance USA: Thomson Delmar Learning.
2013
.
7.
Seaver
EJ
,
Dalston
RM
,
Leeper
HA
,
Adams
LE
.
A study of nasometric values for normal nasal resonance
.
J Speech Hear Res
.
1991
Aug
;
34
(
4
):
715
21
.
[PubMed]
0022-4685
8.
Awan
SN
,
Bressmann
T
,
Poburka
B
,
Roy
N
,
Sharp
H
,
Watts
C
.
Dialectical effects on nasalance: a multicenter, cross-continental study
.
J Speech Lang Hear Res
.
2015
Feb
;
58
(
1
):
69
77
.
[PubMed]
1092-4388
9.
Leeper
HA
,
Rochet
AP
,
MacKay
IR
.
Characteristics of nasalance in Canadian speakers of English and French.
Second International Conference on Spoken Language Processing
.
1992
.
10.
Rochet
AP
,
Sovis
EA
,
Mielke
DL
.
Characteristics of nasalance in speakers of western Canadian English and French
.
J Speech Lang Pathol Audiol
.
1998
;
22
:
94
103
.0848-1970
11.
Van Lierde
KM
,
Wuyts
FL
,
De Bodt
M
,
Van Cauwenberge
P
.
Nasometric values for normal nasal resonance in the speech of young Flemish adults
.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J
.
2001
Mar
;
38
(
2
):
112
8
.
[PubMed]
1055-6656
12.
D’haeseleer
E
,
Bettens
K
,
De Mets
S
,
De Moor
V
,
Van Lierde
K
.
Normative Data and Dialectical Effects on Nasalance in Flemish Adults
.
Folia Phoniatr Logop
.
2015
;
67
(
1
):
42
8
.
[PubMed]
1021-7762
13.
Okalidou
A
,
Karathanasi
A
,
Grigoraki
E
.
Nasalance norms in Greek adults
.
Clin Linguist Phon
.
2011
Aug
;
25
(
8
):
671
88
.
[PubMed]
0269-9206
14.
Brunnegård
K
,
van Doorn
J
.
Normative data on nasalance scores for Swedish as measured on the Nasometer: influence of dialect, gender, and age
.
Clin Linguist Phon
.
2009
Jan
;
23
(
1
):
58
69
.
[PubMed]
0269-9206
15.
El-Kassabi
RM
,
Hassan
S
,
Mesallam
TA
,
Malki
KH
,
Farahat
M
,
Alfaris
A
.
Standardization of nasalance scores in normal Saudi speakers
.
Logoped Phoniatr Vocol
.
2015
Jul
;
40
(
2
):
77
85
.
[PubMed]
1401-5439
16.
Hwang
YJ
.
Normative nasalance scores and differences as a function of gender and residential area
.
Commun Sci Disord
.
2007
;
12
(
3
):
508
20
.2288-1328
17.
Park
M
,
Baek
WS
,
Lee
E
,
Koh
KS
,
Kim
BK
,
Baek
R
.
Nasalance scores for normal Korean-speaking adults and children
.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
.
2014
Feb
;
67
(
2
):
173
7
.
[PubMed]
1748-6815
18.
Whitehill
TL
.
Nasalance measures in Cantonese-speaking women
.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J
.
2001
Mar
;
38
(
2
):
119
25
.
[PubMed]
1055-6656
19.
Kim
HK
,
Yu
XM
,
Cao
YJ
,
Liu
XM
,
Huang
ZM
.
Dialectal and gender differences in nasalance for a Mandarin population
.
Clin Linguist Phon
.
2016
;
30
(
2
):
119
30
.
[PubMed]
0269-9206
20.
Mayo
C
,
Mayo
R
.
Normative nasalance values across languages
.
Echo.
2011
Mar
;
6
:
22
32
.
21.
Lee
A
,
Browne
U
.
Nasalance scores for typical Irish English-speaking adults
.
Logoped Phoniatr Vocol
.
2013
Dec
;
38
(
4
):
167
72
.
[PubMed]
1401-5439
22.
Bae
Y
,
Lee
SA
,
Velik
K
,
Liu
Y
,
Beck
C
,
Fox
RA
.
Differences in nasalance and nasality perception between Texas South and Midland dialects
.
J Acoust Soc Am
.
2020
Jan
;
147
(
1
):
568
78
.
[PubMed]
0001-4966
23.
Huang
BR
,
Liao
XD
.
The modern Chinese
.
Lanzhou
:
Gansu People’s Publishing House
;
1983
.
24.
Flege
JE
.
Second language speech learning: theory, findings, and problems
.
Speech Percept Linguist Exp Issues Cross-Language Res
;
1995
.
25.
Flege
JE
,
Schirru
C
,
MacKay
IR
.
Interaction between the native and second language phonetic subsystems
.
Speech Commun
.
2003
;
40
(
4
):
467
91
. 0167-6393
26.
Doetzer
R V
. Nasometric assessment of Spanish/English bilingual speakers.
2008
27.
Perry
JL
,
Kotlarek
K
,
Mendez
L
,
Holt
Y
,
Fafulas
S
,
Broadwell
K
.
Nasometric Comparison Between Spanish-English Bilingual and English Monolingual Children
.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J
.
2019
Mar
;
56
(
3
):
331
9
.
[PubMed]
1055-6656
28.
Kalyani
M
,
Sinha
AK
,
Kumar
H
,
Hota
BP
,
Das
L
.
Influence of Mizo language on nasal and oral passage in English: A nasometric study
.
Asia Pacific J Res
;
2016
. p.
1
.
29.
Awan
SN
,
Virani
A
.
Nasometer 6200 versus Nasometer II 6400: effect on measures of nasalance
.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J
.
2013
May
;
50
(
3
):
268
74
.
[PubMed]
1055-6656
30.
Watterson
T
,
Lewis
K
,
Brancamp
T
. Comparison of nasalance scores obtained with the Nasometer 6200 and the Nasometer II 6400. Cleft palate-craniofacial J.
2005
;42(5):574–9.
31.
Shi
X
,
Ran
Q
,
Shi
F.
An Analysis of Sonorant Nasality in Beijing Mandarin.
ICPhS.
2011
; pp 1814–7.
32.
Carignan
C
,
Shosted
R
,
Shih
C
,
Rong
P.
Compensatory articulation in American English nasalized vowels. J Phon.
2011
.
33.
Yuan
J
,
Liberman
M
.
Automatic measurement and comparison of vowel nasalization across languages.
ICPhS.
2011
; pp 2244–7.
34.
Wu
M
,
Sloos
M
,
van de Weijer
J
. The perception of the English alveolar-velar nasal coda contrast by monolingual versus bilingual Chinese speakers. 2016 10th International Symposium on Chinese Spoken Language Processing (ISCSLP). IEEE;
2016
; pp 1–5.
35.
United States Census Bureau
. Detailed languages spoken at home and ability to speak English for the population 5 Years and over: 2009-2013 [Internet].
2015
Available from: https://www.census.gov/data/tables/2013/demo/2009-2013-lang-tables.html
36.
Goldman
R
,
Fristoe
M.
Goldman Fristoe 3: Test of Articulation.
2015
. DOI: .
38.
Cohen
J
.
Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences
.
Routledge
;
2013
.
39.
Trost-Cardamone
JE
.
American English Sentence Sample: a controlled sample for assessing cleft palate speech outcome.
Meeting of the American Cleft Palate–Craniofacial Association, San Jose, CA.
2012
.
40.
Sweeney
T
,
Sell
D
,
O’Regan
M
.
Nasalance scores for normal-speaking Irish children
.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J
.
2004
Mar
;
41
(
2
):
168
74
.
[PubMed]
1055-6656
41.
Montrul
S
,
Slabakova
R
.
Acquiring morphosyntactic and semantic properties of preterit and imperfect tenses in L2 spanish. 2002 Klein EC, Martohardjono G. Investigating second language grammars: some conceptual and methodological issues in generative SLA research. The development of second language grammars. John Benjamins; 1999; p 3. Flege JE, Eefting W. Cross-language switching in stop consonant perception and production by Dutch speakers of english
.
Speech Commun
.
1987
.0167-6393
42.
Klein EC, Martohardjono G. Investigating second language grammars: some conceptual and methodological issues in generative SLA research. In: Klein EC, Martohardjono G, editors. The development of second language grammars. Philadelphia: John Benjamins; 1999; p. 3–36.
43.
Flege JE, Eefting W. Cross-language switching in stop consonant perception and production by Dutch speakers of English. Speech Commun. 1987;6(3):185–202.
44.
MacKay
IR
,
Meador
D
,
Flege
JE
.
The identification of English consonants by native speakers of Italian
.
Phonetica
.
2001
Jan-Jun
;
58
(
1-2
):
103
25
.
[PubMed]
0031-8388
45.
Sancier
ML
,
Fowler
CA
. Gestural drift in a bilingual speaker of Brazilian Portuguese and English. J Phon.
1997
.
46.
Sheldon
A
,
Strange
W
.
The acquisition of /r/ and /l/ by Japanese learners of English: evidence that speech production can precede speech perception
.
Appl Psycholinguist
.
1982
;
3
(
3
):
243
61
. 0142-7164
47.
Flege
JE
,
Takagi
N
,
Mann
V
.
Japanese adults can learn to produce English /r/ and /l/ accurately
.
Lang Speech
.
1995
Jan-Mar
;
38
(
Pt 1
):
25
55
.
[PubMed]
0023-8309
48.
Moore
J
,
Shaw
J
,
Kawahara
S
,
Arai
T
.
Articulation strategies for English liquids used by Japanese speakers
.
Acoust Sci Technol
.
2018
;
39
(
2
):
75
83
. 1346-3969
49.
Jun
SA
,
Oh
M
.
Acquisition of second language intonation.
Sixth International Conference on Spoken Language Processing
.
2000
.
50.
Mennen
I
.
Phonological and phonetic influences in non-native intonation
.
Non-native Prosody Phonetic Descr Teach Pract.
2007
;(
Jan
):
53
76
.
51.
Ueyama
M
. The phonology and phonetics of second language intonation: The case of" Japanese English". Fifth European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology. 1997. Carden KA. Vowel-consonant interaction in two dialects of Mandarin.
2016
.
52.
Lewis KE, Watterson T, Quint T. The effect of vowels on nasalance scores. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2000 Nov;37(6):584-9.
53.
Carden KA. Vowel-consonant interaction in two dialects of Mandarin [dissertation]. University of Iowa, 2016.
54.
Rochet
AP
,
Rochet
BL
.
Patterns of assimilation nasality in English as a function of vowel height.
Proceedings of 14th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences
.
1999
; pp
699
702
.
55.
Kuehn
DP
,
Moller
KT
.
The state of the art: Speech and language issues in the cleft palate population
.
Cleft Palate-Craniofacial J.
;
2000
.
56.
Peterson-Falzone
SJ
,
Trost-Cardamone
J
,
Karnell
MP
,
Hardin-Jones
MA
.
The clinician’s guide to treating cleft palate speech
.
Elsevier Health Sciences
;
2016
.
57.
Timothy
BH
.
The acoustic phonetics of nasality: A practical guide to acoustic analysis
.
Perspect Speech Sci Orofac Disord
.
2005
Oct
;
15
(
2
):
3
10
. 1940-7572
58.
Villanueva
NL
,
Afrooz
PN
,
Carboy
JA
,
Rohrich
RJ
.
Nasal analysis: considerations for ethnic variation. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2019;143(6):1179e-1188e. Kollara L, Perry JL, Hudson S. Racial variations in velopharyngeal and craniometric morphology in children: An imaging study. J Speech, Lang Hear Res. 2016. Perry JL, Kuehn DP, Sutton BP, Gamage JK, Fang X. Anthropometric analysis of the velopharynx and related craniometric dimensions in three adult populations using MRI
.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J
.
2016
;
53
(
1
):
e1
13
.
[PubMed]
1055-6656
59.
Kollara L, Perry JL, Hudson S. Racial variations in velopharyngeal and craniometric morphology in children: An imaging study. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2016;59(1):27–38.
60.
Perry JL, Kuehn DP, Sutton BP, Gamage JK, Fang X. Anthropometric analysis of the velopharynx and related craniometric dimensions in three adult populations using MRI. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2016;53(1):e1–13.
61.
Brunnegård
K
,
Lohmander
A
,
van Doorn
J
,
Brunnegård
K
,
Lohmander
A
,
Van Doorn
J
.
Comparison between perceptual assessments of nasality and nasalance scores
.
Int J Lang Commun Disord
.
2012
Sep-Oct
;
47
(
5
):
556
66
.
[PubMed]
1368-2822
62.
Chun
J
,
Whitehill
TL
.
The relationship between nasalance and nasality in Cantonese children with cleft palate
.
Asia Pac J Speech Lang Hear
.
2001
Dec
;
6
(
3
):
135
47
. 1361-3286
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.