Diagnostic assessment of swallowing in routine clinical practice relies heavily on the long-standing techniques of videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) and videoendoscopic evaluation of swallowing (VEES). These complementary and sophisticated techniques provide a real-time visualization of biomechanical movements of the structures involved in swallowing and consequent effects on bolus flow. Despite the sophistication of this instrumentation, interpretation relies heavily on subjective clinical judgement and temporal resolution is limited, limitations that may influence patient management. Adjunctive diagnostic assessments may be utilized to compensate for the limitations posed by VFSS and VEES. Ultrasound and pharyngeal manometry do not represent the latest in technological advances, with both emerging in swallowing research over 20 years ago. However, both have resisted integration into routine clinical practice, despite the fact that they offer quantitative metrics of swallowing that are not available using standard techniques. The aim of this review is to present recent research on these two less frequently used modalities in clinical swallowing assessment, discuss potential applications in clinical practice and review supportive data on test-retest reliability, rater reliability and validity. The paper will conclude with a case report that exemplifies the unique contribution of these modalities in executing and revising therapeutic approaches for a patient with neurogenic dysphagia.

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