Background: Iranian vibrato (tahrir) is a common feature of traditional Iranian singing. A unique feature of tahrir is a modulated voice quality perceived as a rhythmic falsetto voice break associated with upward pitch inflections. Laryngeal discomfort and impaired voice quality can occur in singers when they perform Iranian tahrir using an improper technique. Aim: A case series research design was used to explore voice treatment outcomes using laryngeal manual therapy (LMT) for treating voice problems associated with tahrir singing. Method: Four professional Iranian singers of the traditional style (3 men and 1 woman) were studied. All subjects reported difficulty executing tahrir during performances. They were assessed by a speech-language pathologist (SLP) specializing in the administration of LMT for voice disorders. Multidimensional assessments were made of the participants' vocal function using acoustic and auditory-perceptual evaluation, self-reports of the singers, and LMT assessments by the SLP before and after treatment. The therapeutic program implemented LMT techniques to release laryngeal joints and reduce muscular tension. Results: Pretreatment examination of the larynx and anterior neck musculature using palpation showed that the difficulties in producing tahrir vibrato were associated with a decreased thyrohyoid space and tension in the submental complex and sternocleidomastoid. Posttreatment examination showed an increased thyrohyoid space and reduced tension in the submental complex and sternocleidomastoid, associated with the singers' perception of reduced effort producing tahrir vibrato during singing. Conclusion:Tahrir vibrato requires specific training to prevent excessive tension in laryngeal and neck muscles. In the absence of such training, or in the context of excessive singing associated with fatigue, LMT may facilitate more efficient vocal production in tahrir singers.

1.
Seashore CE: The natural history of the vibrato. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1931;17:623-626.
2.
Sundberg J: Acoustic and psychoacoustic aspects of vocal vibrato. STL-QPSR J 1994;35:45-68.
3.
Parme E: Measurements of the vibrato rate of ten singers. STL-QPSR J 2006;33:73-86.
4.
Horii J: Acoustic analysis of vocal vibrato: a theoretical interpretation of data. J Voice 1989;3:36-43.
5.
Shipp T, Sunberg J, Haglund S: A model of frequency vibrato; in van Larena L (ed): Transcripts of the 13th Symposium on Care of the Professional Voice. New York, New Voice Foundation, 1984, pp 116-117.
6.
Sundberg J: Breathing behavior during singing. STL-QPSR J 1992;1:49-64.
7.
Desain P, Honing H, Aarts R, Timmers R: Rhythmic aspects of vibrato; in Desain P, Windsor WL (eds): Rhythm Perception and Production. Lisse, Swets & Zeitlinger, 1999, pp 203-216.
8.
Miller LC: Music and Song in Persia. Salt Lake City, University of Utah Press, 1999.
9.
Miller LC: Music and Song in Persia. The Art of Avaz. Surrey, Curzon, 1999.
10.
Caton M: The vocal ornament takiyah in Persian music. UCLA Select Rep Ethnomusicol 1974;2:42-53.
11.
Castellengo M, During J, Lamesch S: The Iranian tahrir: acoustical analysis of an ornamental vocal technique. 3rd Interdiscipl Musicol Conf, Tallin, August 2007, pp 1-3.
12.
Biglari HJ: Timbral and Melodic Characteristics of the Persian Singing Style of Avaz; master thesis in musicology, Uppsala, 2009.
13.
Titze I: Belting and a high larynx position. J Singing 2007;63:557-558.
14.
Petecu LG, Sasaki CT: Laryngeal anatomy and physiology. Clin Chest Med 1991;12:415-423.
15.
Shipp T: Vertical laryngeal position: research findings and applications for singers. J Voice 1987;1:217-219.
16.
Sonninen A: The external frame function in the control of pitch in the human voice. Ann NY Acad Sci 1968;155:68-90.
17.
Aronson AE: Clinical Voice Disorders. New York, Thieme Medical, 1990.
18.
Roy N, Leeper HA: Effects of the manual laryngeal musculoskeletal tension reduction technique as a treatment for functional voice disorders: perceptual and acoustic measures. J Voice 1993;3:242-249.
19.
Roy N, Bless DM, Heisey D, Ford C: Manual circumlaryngeal therapy for functional dysphonia: an elevation of short- and long-term treatment outcomes. J Voice 1997;3:321-331.
20.
Mathieson L, Hirani SP, Epstein R, Baken RJ, Wood G, Rubin JS: Laryngeal manual therapy: a preliminary study to examine its treatment effects in the management of muscle tension dysphonia. J Voice 2009;23:353-366.
21.
Van Lierde KM, Bodt MD, Dhaeseleer E, Wuyts F: The treatment of muscle tension dysphonia: a comparison of two treatment techniques by means of an objective multiparameter approach. J Voice 2010;4:294-301.
22.
Van Lierde KM, Deley S, Clement G, De Bodt M, Van Cauwenberge P: Outcome of laryngeal manual therapy in four Dutch adults with persistent moderate-to-severe vocal hyperfunction: a pilot study. J Voice 2004;18:467-447.
23.
Barkmeier-Kraemer J, Lato A, Wiley K: Development of a speech treatment program for a client with essential vocal tremor. Semin Speech Lang 2011;32:43-57.
24.
Boersma P, Weenink D: PRAAT: doing phonetics by computer (version 5.0.20). 2008. http://www.praat.org.
25.
Dejonckere PH, Hirano M, Sundberg J (eds): Vibrato. San Diego, Singular, 1995.
26.
Sundberg J, Askenfet A: Larynx height and voice source: a relationship? In Bless DM, Abbs JH (eds): Vocal Fold Physiology: Contemporary Research and Clinical Issues. San Diego, College Hill, 1983, pp 307-316.
27.
Iwarsson J, Sundberg J: Effects of lung volume on vertical larynx position during phonation. J Voice 1998;12:159-165.
28.
Izadi F, Salehi A: Comparison between palpatory findings of the hyoid position and their acoustic, videostroboscopic, and perceptual attributes in patients with muscle tension dysphonia (with and without organic lesions). J Voice 2013;27:78-83.
29.
Rubin JS, Blake E, Mathieson L: Musculoskeletal patterns in patients with voice disorders. J Voice 2007;21:477-484.
30.
Castellengo M, Lamesch S, During J: Laryngeal vibratory mechanism change and frequency jump: the Persian tahrir (poster presentation). PEVOC 8, Dresden, August 2009.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.