Objective: The aim of the study was to clarify the mechanisms underlying the singing voice. Patients and Methods: Forty-eight professional opera singers underwent flexible and rigid endoscopy, spectrographic analysis and perceptual evaluation. Results: The data provided by voice analysis were not as clear and relevant to the aim of our study as those commonly obtained for speech evaluation. Laryngoscopy with rigid and flexible fiber optics and the singing power ratio (SPR) measurement provided more applicable data. Indeed, the former allowed us to assess laryngeal position, the glottic pattern and vocal tract modifications during the actual singing performance. The latter, already recommended by other authors as a reliable vocal emission index, also yielded more relevant information in comparison with the assessment of voice quality. Specifically, SPR provided data directly correlated to both the years of singing activity and the vocal category of each singer (the higher the singing pitch, the wider the vocal extension). More importantly, the data fully reflected the subjective assessment of each phoniatrician. Conclusions: We suggest that the SPR indices can be used as the electroacoustic equivalent of the subjective judgment of vocal focus.

Di Nicola V, Fiorella ML, Luperto P, Fiorella R: Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) e parametri di bilancio energetico spettrale (NHR, VTI, SPI): normativa. Acta Phon Lat 2001;23:70-86.
Dejonkere PH, Bradley P, Clemente P, et al: A basic protocol for functional assessment of voice pathology, especially for investigating the efficacy of (phonosurgical) treatments and evaluating new assessment techniques. Guideline elaborated by the Committee on Phoniatrics of the European Laryngological Society (ELS). Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2001;258:77-94.
Ricci Maccarini A, Lucchini E: La valutazione dei risultati del trattamento logopedico delle disfonie. Il protocollo SIFEL. Acta Phon Lat 2002;24:246-273.
Ricci Maccarini A, Lucchini E: La valutazione soggettiva ed oggettiva della disfonia. Il protocollo SIFEL. Acta Phon Lat 2002;24:13-42.
Schindler A, Ottaviani F, Schindler O: L'esame obiettivo non strumentale nelle disfonie. Acta Phon Lat 2002;24:48-56.
Titze IR, Sundberg J: Acoustic Power in Speech and Singing. SingPub, Philadelphia, 1990.
Fussi F, Magnani S: L'arte vocale. Torino, Omega, 1994.
Fussi F: La voce del cantante. Torino, Omega, 2000.
Brown WS, Rothman HB, et al: Perceptual and acoustic study of professionally trained versus untrained voices. J Voice 2000;14:301-326.
Bestebreurtje ME, Schutte HK: Resonance strategies for the belting style: results of a single female subject study. J Voice 2000;14:194-204.
Barlow C, Lovetri J: Closed quotient and spectral measures of female adolescent singers in different singing styles. J Voice 2010;24:314-318.
Lamarche A, Ternström S, Pabon P: The singer's voice range profile: female professional opera soloists. J Voice 2010;24:410-426.
Titze IR: Acoustic interpretation of resonant voice. J Voice 2001;15:519-528.
Thalén M, Sundberg J: Describing different styles of singing: a comparison of a female singer's voice source in ‘Classical', ‘Pop', ‘Jazz' and ‘Blues'. Logoped Phoniatr Vocol 2001;26:82-93.
Stone RE Jr, Cleveland TF, Sundberg PJ, Prokop J: Aerodynamic and acoustical measures of speech, operatic, and Broadway vocal styles in a professional female singer. J Voice 2003;17:283-297.
Barnes-Burroughs K, Watts C, Brown OL, Lovetri J: The visual/kinesthetic effects of melodic contour in musical notation as it affects vocal timbre in singers of classical and music theater repertoire. J Voice 2005;19:411-419.
Lundy DS, Roy S, Casiano R, Xue JW, Evans J: Acoustic analysis of the singing and speaking voice in singing students. J Voice 2000;14: 490-493.
Motta G, Cesari U, Iengo M, Motta G Jr, Pisanti V: La voce cantata e le sue patologie. Acta Phon Lat 1988;10:112-130.
Motta G, Cesari U: Fisiologia della voce cantata; in Disfonie e Disodie. 16. Giornate Italiane di Otoneurologia, Sorrento, marzo 1999. Milano, Comitato Simposi Scientifici Formenti, 1999, pp 49-62.
Sonninen A, Hurme P, Laukkanen AM: The external frame function in the control of pitch, register, and singing mode: radiographic observations of a female singer. J Voice 1999;13:319-340.
Lundy DS, Roy S, Casiano R, Xue JW, Evans J: Acoustic analysis of the singing and speaking voice in singing students. J Voice 2000;14:490-493.
Sundberg J, Sataloff RT: Vocal tract resonance; in The Professional Voice: The Science and Art of Clinical Care. New York, Raven Press, 1991, pp 49-68.
Omori K, Kacker A, Carroll LM, Riley WD, Blaugrund SM: Singing power ratio: quantitative evaluation of singing voice quality. J Voice 1996;10:228-235.
Bartholomew WT: A physical definition of ‘good voice quality' in the male voice. J Acoust Soc Am 1934;6:25-33.
Seidner W, Schutte H, Wendler J, Rauhut A: Dependence of the high singing formant on pitch and vowel in different voice types. Proc Stockholm Music Acoustics Conf, 1983.
Hollien H: The puzzle of the singer's formant; in Bless DM, Abbs JH (eds): Vocal Fold Physiology: Contemporary Research and Clinical Issues. San Diego, College-Hill, 1983, pp 368-378.
Griffin B, Woo P, et al: Physiological characteristics of the supported singing voice. A preliminary study. J Voice 1995;9:45-56.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.