Voice training exploits semiocclusives, which increase vocal tract interaction with the source. Modeling results suggest that vocal economy (maximum flow declination rate divided by maximum area declination rate, MADR) is improved by matching the glottal and vocal tract impedances. Changes in MADR may be correlated with thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle activity. Here the effects of impedance matching are studied for laryngeal muscle activity and glottal resistance. One female repeated [pa:p:a] before and immediately after (a) phonation into different-sized tubes and (b) voiced bilabial fricative [β:]. To allow estimation of subglottic pressure from the oral pressure, [p] was inserted also in the repetitions of the semiocclusions. Airflow was registered using a flow mask. EMG was registered from TA, cricothyroid (CT) and lateral cricoarytenoid (LCA) muscles. Phonation was simulated using a 7 × 5 × 5 point-mass model of the vocal folds, allowing inputs of simulated laryngeal muscle activation. The variables were TA, CT and LCA activities. Increased vocal tract impedance caused the subject to raise TA activity compared to CT and LCA activities. Computer simulation showed that higher glottal economy and efficiency (oral radiated power divided by aerodynamic power) were obtained with a higher TA/CT ratio when LCA activity was tuned for ideal adduction.

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