Background: Drugs used in preterm labor (PTL) have side effects. Research into new tocolytic agents is recommended. The plant Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken (Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers) is used in Anthroposophic Medicine for PTL, insomnia, and emotional disturbances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of B. pinnatum mother tincture (MT) on Wistar rats and their fetuses throughout pregnancy. Method: Sixty animals were divided into 6 equal groups: controls C1 and C2 received 1 and 25 × the maximum daily dose of a 30% ethanol / water solution, serving as vehicle of B. pinnatum MT; B1 and B2 received 1 and 25 × the maximum daily dose of B. pinnatum MT; and B3 and B4 received 50 and 100 × B. pinnatum concentrate. The following parameters were assessed: weight gain; maternal and fetal mortality; implantations and resorptions; number and weight of fetuses and placentas; major external fetal malformations. Results: Rat weight gain (excluding fetal and placental weight) was higher in group B4 and lower in group B2. There were no maternal or fetal deaths and no group differences in implantations and resorptions or number and weight of fetuses and placentas. No macroscopic fetal abnormalities were observed at the 4 dosage levels investigated. Conclusion: Daily administration of B. pinnatum MT at high doses to pregnant Wistar rats interfered with maternal weight gain and did not interfere with fetal compartment.

Ingemarsson I, Lamont RF: An update on the controversies of tocolytic therapy for the prevention of preterm birth. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2003; 82:1-9.
Tara PN, Thornton S: Current medical therapy in the prevention and treatment of preterm labour. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2004;9:481-489.
Pryde PG, Besinger RE, Gianopoulos JG, Mittendorf R: Adverse and beneficial effects of tocolytic therapy. Semin Perinatol 2001;25:316-340.
Berkman ND, Thorp JM Jr, Lohr KN, et al.: Tocolytic treatment for the management of preterm labor: a review of the evidence. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;188:1648-1659.
Simhan HN, Caritis SN: Prevention of preterm delivery. N Engl J Med 2007;357:477-487.
Rees L, Weil A: Integrated medicine. BMJ 2001;322: 119-120.
Hamre HJ, Witt CM, Glockmann A, Ziegler R, Willich SN, Kiene H: Anthroposophic medical therapy in chronic disease: a four-year prospective cohort study. BMC Complement Altern Med 2007;7:10.
Gwehenberger B, Rist L, Huch R, von Mandach U: Effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum versus fenoterol on uterine contractility. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2004;113:164-171.
Plangger N, Rist L, Zimmermann R, von Mandach U: Intravenous tocolysis with Bryophyllum pinnatum is better tolerated than beta-agonist application. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2006;124: 168-172.
Ojewole JA: Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Crassulaceae) leaf aqueous extract. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;99:13-19.
Yamagishi T, Yan XZ, Wu RY, McPhail DR, McPhail AT, Lee KH: Structure and stereochemistry of bryophyllin-A, a novel potent cytotoxic bufadienolide orthoacetate from Bryophyllum pinnatum. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1988;36:1615-1617.
Siddiqui S, Faizi S, Siddiqui BS, Sultana N: Triterpenoids and phenanthrenes from leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum. Phytochemistry 1989;28:2433-2438.
Supratman U, Fujita T, Akiyama K, Hayashi H: New insecticidal bufadienolide, bryophyllin C, from Kalanchoe pinnata. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2000;64:1310-1312.
Cruz EA, Da-Silva SA, Muzitano MF, Silva PM, Costa SS, Rossi-Bergmann B: Immunomodulatory pretreatment with Kalanchoe pinnata extract and its quercitrin flavonoid effectively protects mice against fatal anaphylactic shock. Int Immunopharmacol 2008;8:1616-1621.
Yemitan OK, Salahdeen HM: Neurosedative and muscle relaxant activities of aqueous extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum. Fitoterapia 2005;76:187-193.
Yadav NP, Dixit VK: Hepatoprotective activity of leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata Pers. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;86:197-202.
Ministério da Saúde (Brasil): A Fitoterapia no SUS e o Programa de Pesquisa de Plantas Medicinais da Central de Medicamentos. Brasília, Ministério da Saúde, 2006, p 148.
Simões-Wüst AP, Jeschke E, Mennet M, Schnelle M, Matthes H, von Mandach U: Prescribing pattern of Bryophyllum preparations among a network of anthroposophic physicians. Forsch Komplementmed 2012;19:293-301.
Gardin NE, Schleier R: Medicamentos Antroposóficos: Vademecum. São Paulo, João de Barro, 2009, p 285.
da Silva JB, Nakamura MU, Cordeiro JA, Kulay LJ: Acupuncture for insomnia in pregnancy - a prospective, quasi-randomised, controlled study. Acupunct Med 2005;23:47-51.
Bosco Guerreiro da Silva J: Acupuncture for mild to moderate emotional complaints in pregnancy - a prospective, quasi-randomised, controlled study. Acupunct Med 2007;25:65-71.
Guerreiro da Silva JB, Nakamura MU, Cordeiro JA, Kulay L Jr: Acupuncture for low back pain in pregnancy - a prospective, quasi-randomised, controlled study. Acupunct Med 2004;22:60-67.
Buhimschi CS, Weiner CP: Medications in pregnancy and lactation: part 1. Teratology. Obstet Gynecol 2009;113:166-188.
World Health Organization: The Promotion and Development of Traditional Medicine - Technical Report Series. Geneva, WHO, 1978.
Quintino MP, Nakamura MU, Simões Mde J, et al.: Chronic use of indinavir in albino rat pregnancy (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Rodentia, Mammalia): biological assay. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2011;37: 1212-1215.
Wagner A, Nakamura MU, Simões RS, et al.: Chronic action of association of zidovudine, lamivudine and ritonavir on pregnant rats. A biologic assay. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 2011;38:28-32.
Restum Antonio E, Pereira Fontes TM, Simões RS, et al.: Effects of daily intake of zidovudine-stavudine on rat pregnancy outcome: biological essay. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2012;39:205-208.
Jones KL: The effects of alcohol on fetal development. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today 2011;93: 3-11.
Associação Brasileira de Farmacêuticos Homeopatas: Farmacopéia Homeopática Brasileira, ed 2. São Paulo, Atheneu, 1997.
Pettigrew R, Hamilton-Fairley D: Obesity and female reproductive function. Br Med Bull 1997;53:341-358.
Shankar K, Ronis MJ, Badger TM: Effects of pregnancy and nutritional status on alcohol metabolism. Alcohol Res Health 2007;30:55-59.
Biesaga M: Influence of extraction methods on stability of flavonoids. J Chromatogr A 2011;1218:2505-2512.
Muzitano MF, Bergonzi MC, De Melo GO, et al.: Influence of cultivation conditions, season of collection and extraction method on the content of antileishmanial flavonoids from Kalanchoe pinnata. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;133:132-137.
Willie JT, Chemelli RM, Sinton CM, Yanagisawa M: To eat or to sleep? Orexin in the regulation of feeding and wakefulness. Annu Rev Neurosci 2001;24: 429-458.
Kok SW, Meinders AE, Overeem S, et al.: Reduction of plasma leptin levels and loss of its circadian rhythmicity in hypocretin (orexin)-deficient narcoleptic humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87: 805-809.
Tsujino N, Sakurai T: Orexin/hypocretin: a neuropeptide at the interface of sleep, energy homeostasis, and reward system. Pharmacol Rev 2009;61: 162-176.
Pal S, Sen T, Chaudhuri AK: Neuropsychopharmacological profile of the methanolic fraction of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf extract. J Pharm Pharmacol 1999;51:313-318.
Lauer CJ, Krieg JC: Sleep in eating disorders. Sleep Med Rev 2004;8:109-118.
You do not currently have access to this content.