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Introduction: Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) has a low prenatal diagnostic rate. Therefore, we investigated whether Doppler waveforms with a low pulsatility in the pulmonary veins can indicate fetal TAPVC. Methods: This retrospective study included 16 fetuses with TAPVC, including 10 with complex congenital heart disease and 104 healthy fetuses that underwent fetal echocardiography. Pulmonary venous S and D wave flow velocities and the valley (representing the lowest velocity between the S and D waves) were measured. Valley indices I and II were then calculated as (velocity of valley/ greater of the S and D wave velocities) and (velocity of valley/lesser of the S and D wave velocities), respectively. Results: Supra/infracardiac TAPVC cases exhibited significantly greater valley indices than that of the healthy group. After adjusting for gestational age at fetal echocardiography, valley index I (odds ratio [OR] 7.26, p < 0.01) and II (OR 9.23, p < 0.01) were significant predictors of supra/infracardiac TAPVC. Furthermore, valley indices I and II exhibited a high area under the curve for detecting supra/infracardiac TAPVC, regardless of the presence of pulmonary venous obstruction. Conclusion: The valley index may be a useful tool for the detection of fetal TAPVC.

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