Introduction: Fetal thoracoamniotic shunts are common lifesaving interventions but frequently require replacement. Needle fetal thoracoscopy is a technique that uses standard thoracoamniotic shunt introducer sheaths to permit direct visualization and even instrument manipulation during shunt deployment to facilitate optimal positioning and primary shunt function in the most challenging cases. Case Presentation: In this study, 5 patients who underwent needle fetal thoracoscopy-assisted thoracoamniotic shunt placement were reviewed. Three patients with large, macrocystic congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAMs) with evidence of worsening mediastinal shift and/or hydrops and 2 patients with large chylothorax with fetal hydrops were treated. Four cases had previous shunts that failed due to poor sonographic visualization during initial placement, cyst septations, shunt obstruction, or dislodgment. Needle fetal thoracoscopy was used to disrupt cyst walls and septations, clear hematoma, and confirm the optimal initial position of the shunt. In this series, 1 severe CPAM patient with a short cervix developed preterm labor postoperatively resulting in neonatal demise. The remaining 4 patients experienced resolution of hydrops and progressed to successful delivery with excellent neonatal outcomes. Conclusion: Needle fetal thoracoscopy is a procedure that may be selectively deployed in challenging thoracoamniotic shunt cases impacted by recurrent failure, poor sonographic windows, and challenging fetal positioning.

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