Introduction: No evidence-based protocols exist for fetal cardiac monitoring during fetoscopic myelomeningocele (fMMC) repair and intraprocedural spectral Doppler data are limited. We determined the feasibility of continuous fetal echocardiography during fMMC repair and correlated Doppler changes with qualitative fetal cardiac function during each phase of fMMC repair. Methods: Patients undergoing fMMC repair had continuous fetal echocardiography interpreted in real-time by pediatric cardiology. Fetal data included fetal heart rate (FHR), qualitative cardiac function, mitral and tricuspid valve inflow waveforms, and umbilical artery (UA), umbilical vein (UV), ductus arteriosus (DA), and ductus venosus (DV) Dopplers. Results: UA abnormalities were noted in 14/25 patients, UV abnormalities were observed in 2 patients, and DV and DA abnormalities were each noted in 4 patients. Qualitative cardiac function was normal for all patients with the exception of one with isolated left ventricular dysfunction during myofascial flap creation, concurrent with an abnormal UA flow pattern. All abnormalities resolved by the first postoperative day. Conclusions: Continuous fetal echocardiography was feasible during all fMMC repairs. Spectral Doppler changes in the UA were common during fMMC procedures but qualitative cardiac dysfunction was rare. Abnormalities in the UV, DV, and DA Dopplers, FHR, and cardiac function were less common findings.

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