Objective: To assess longitudinal intrathoracic changes after fetal laser surgery in fetuses with bronchopulmonary sequestration (BPS) with hydrops and/or hydrothorax. Study Design: The presence of intrafetal fluid effusions, the lung mass volume ratio (congenital pulmonary airway malformation volume ratio [CVR]), and the observed/expected lung-to-head circumference ratio (O/E-LHR) of both lungs were evaluated in a cohort of BPS fetuses with hydrops and/or hydrothorax treated with full laser ablation of the feeding artery (FLAFA). The longitudinal changes in intrafetal fluid effusions, lung mass volume, and pulmonary growth were analyzed by survival and multilevel analysis against days after FLAFA. Results: FLAFA was successfully performed in 15 cases at a median gestational age of 26.9 weeks. A complete disappearance of the hydrops and hydrothorax was observed a median interval of 7.5 and 21 days after the fetal intervention, respectively. A progressive decrease in the CVR and an increment in the size of both lungs were observed after FLAFA. The O/E-LHR of the lung contralateral and ipsilateral to the side of the BPS became normal on average 8 and 10 weeks after FLAFA, respectively. Conclusion: Fetal laser surgery with FLAFA promotes disappearance of all fetal fluid effusions, a lung mass regression sequence, and a normalization of pulmonary growth.

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