The risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) during invasive procedures may not be negligible, although it has been poorly assessed. The risk of hepatitis B transmission during amniocentesis seems to be low, but it may be increased in women with a positive HBeAg. HCV transmission risk cannot be established because evidence is lacking. No information exists about other invasive procedures in such infections. An increased risk of vertical transmission following an invasive procedure was suggested in HIV infection, but amniocentesis seems to be safe when performed under highly active antiretroviral treatment, with a low viral load and when avoiding placental passage. International guidelines do not clearly define policies to screen for maternal blood-borne virus infection during invasive procedures. Nevertheless, serological status should be assessed in all cases and parents should be aware of the existing evidence for transmission risk. Transplacental amniocentesis should always be avoided.

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