Objective: To delineate clinical features of a case of fetal hemolytic disease due to anti-Rh17, along with a review of relevant studies published in English and Japanese. Methods: We present clinical features of a –D-/-D- phenotype woman with anti-Rh17 alloimmunization during pregnancy. Relevant English literature in the MEDLINE database was reviewed, while Japanese studies were searched in the Japana Centra Revuo Medicina database. Results: A Japanese –D-/-D- woman with anti-Rh17 (Hro) was treated during pregnancy. Serial ultrasonography, antibody titers, amniocenteses, and cordocenteses were conducted for perinatal management. Amniocentesis results demonstrated a high delta optical density level of 450 in the amniotic fluid, while cordocentesis revealed alloimmunization between the mother and the fetus as well as fetal hemolytic anemia. Blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery indicated a rapid development of fetal anemia. The newborn demonstrated severe anemia and hyperbilirubinemia, which were successfully treated with exchange transfusions. Two cases of prenatally diagnosed fetal hemolytic disease due to anti-Rh17 were found published in English and 5 in Japanese. Conclusion: A –D-/-D- phenotype patient with anti-Rh17 was successfully managed during pregnancy and a good outcome for the neonate was achieved. Our results and a review of related literature led to the following suggestions. The first pregnancy in a –D-/-D- woman may be affected, an anamnestic immune response can easily occur during pregnancy, the level of anti-Rh17 titer is indicative of the degree of fetal hemolysis, and appropriate intrauterine intervention is warranted for achievement of a good outcome.

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