A fetus with congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) due to complete tracheal atresia was referred at 31 weeks of gestation after 12 weeks of massive hydrops. The fetus was delivered by the ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure allowing sufficient time while on placental support for bronchoscopy to confirm tracheal atresia and tracheostomy to secure the airway. His postnatal course was complicated by severe capillary leak syndrome secondary to hydrops, diaphragmatic paralysis, tracheobronchial malacia, and the need for chronic ventilatory support. The infant’s tracheobronchial malacia resolved by 5 months of age and normal diaphragmatic function was restored at 9 months allowing him to be weaned from mechanical ventilation. He underwent tracheal reconstruction at 17 months of age. At follow up at 32 months of age he has a patent airway and is the first long-term survivor with CHAOS.

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