Objectives: We present a multicenter, population–based epidemiological survey aimed at assessing the prevalence of Peyronie’s disease (PD) and its potential risk factors in the general population. Methods: In each of the ten centers throughout Italy, a uroandrologist contacted all the men in the age range 50–69 years registered with a general practitioner (GP). The subjects recruited were evaluated on the basis of their medical history, including alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. The following questionnaires were administered: IIEF, IIPSS symptom score, premature ejaculation and PD. Results: All the subjects registered with a GP were invited to participate in the study. Of the 1,180 subjects, 647 (53%) entered over survey. In this population, 46 cases of PD were identified, accounting for a prevalence of 7.1%. The prevalence rate increased with age even if the trend is not statistically significant. The multivariate analysis showed a significant correlation between cigarette smoking and PD, with an odds ratio (OR) of 4.6 (CL 95%) confidence limit 1.506– 14.287). Smoking as single variable had an OR of 7.2 (95% CL 2.34–24.93). No significant association was observed between PD and the other variables such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension and alcohol consumption. Conclusions: PD is a much more frequent condition in the general population than previously reported. According to our results, cigarette smoking may be considered a risk factor for developing PD. If further and more targeted studies confirm that giving up smoking may reduce the risk of developing PD, then there will be new prospects for primary and secondary prevention and for curbing the progression of the disease.

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