Objective: Traditional augmentation cystoplasty using gastrointestinal segments is known to be associated with metabolic abnormalities and alterations in the bladder causing potential carcinogenesis. In this respect alternative techniques have been searched preferably lined by urothelium. We performed ureterocystoplasty in 7 patients with a diagnosis of neurogenic bladder and investigated the clinical and functional aspects.Patients and Methods: Between 1995 and 1999, ureterocystoplasty was performed using both ureters in 4 male and 3 female children with bilaterally functional kidneys. Patients’ ages varied between 1 and 7 (mean 4.7) years. Before the operation all the children were incontinent, had a small–capacity noncompliant bladder, and high–grade (IV–V, International Classification System) reflux on voiding cystouretrography (VCU). Technetium–99m DTPA renal scintigraphy was also performed in all children to evaluate renal function before and after the operation. Results: Before the operation the mean end–filling intravesical pressure was 45.6 (35–60) cm H2O which decreased to 18.9 cm H2O 3 months postoperatively. The mean bladder capacity 3 months after ureterocystoplasty was found to be 279.3 (250–330) ml. All the children were continent and VCU showed the absence of reflux. There was mild to moderate improvement in renal function after surgery in both kidneys on technetium–99m DTPA renal scintigraphy. Three (43%) patients could void spontaneously with abdominal straining, whereas 4 (57%) children could empty their bladders by clean intermittent catheterization. A double–J stent was inserted in 1 (14%) patient because of a rise in serum creatinine after the removal of the ureteral catheter. Patients were followed for a mean period of 30 (8–50) months and all the children remained continent. The bladder capacity and end–filling pressure measurements were also stable.Conclusion: Ureterocystoplasty was found to be an effective method for bladder augmentation in bilaterally functional kidneys with an acceptable complication rate

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