Objective: We investigated free and total prostate–specific antigen (PSA) levels and free/total (f/t) ratio in the fasting saliva and compared them with the serum levels in normal individuals, in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. Our aim was to determine free and total PSA and f/t ratio in saliva and to improve and simplify the differentiation between BPH and prostate cancer by using saliva as an alternative to serum.Methods: Serum and fasting saliva concentrations of free and total PSA were measured in 35 men with BPH, 16 men with stage D prostate cancer, and 25 healthy men. Serum and fasting saliva samples were collected at the same time and were analyzed on the same day at our laboratory with microparticle enzyme immunoassay technology.Results: For the total of 76 men, there was a significant correlation between free and total PSA levels in each sample (r = 0.97 for serum and r = 0.44 for saliva, p<0.001). Although there was a significant difference between three groups for serum–free and total PSA levels and serum f/t ratios, no significant difference was determined between groups for salivary free and total PSA levels and salivary f/t ratios. No correlations were found between patient age and salivary PSA levels.Conclusions: Fasting salivary free and total PSA levels are not effected by high serum levels of prostatic origin. Although there was a significant difference between mean serum and salivary levels of free and total PSA in each group, the f/t ratio of saliva was very close to the serum ratio of normal subjects. Determination of free and total PSA in saliva to improve and simplify the differentiation between prostate cancer and BPH is not suitable for use as alternative measurement of serum.

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