Introduction: Pure squamous carcinoma (SCC) is a rare entity in western regions. The management of SCC still remains similar to that of transitional carcinoma, although it is a different entity. A retrospective review can be helpful in understanding the biological behavior of this uncommon vesical tumour.Material and Methods: Nineteen consecutive cases of pure SCC of the bladder, not related to bilharziasis or spinal cord injury, are herein reported. Fifteen patients were submitted to radical cystectomy, combined with emasculation in 1 case and unilateral nephroureterectomy in another. Partial cystectomy was performed in 1 patient and transurethral resection followed by radiotherapy in 3 more cases. Involvement of prostatic urethra and upper urinary tract was evident in 9 (47.3%) and 5 patients (26.3%), respectively. Four patients were submitted to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 1 to presurgical radiotherapy without any objective response. Adjuvant chemotherapy was performed in 3 patients. At a mean follow–up of 52 months, 6 patients (31.5%) are alive without any evidence of disease. SCC antigen was monitored in 5 patients. The possible role of this marker in bladder SCC is discussed.Conclusions: Invasion of the upper urinary tract and prostatic urethra seems more common in SCC than in transitional cell carcinoma. Distant metastases are rare. Most patients die after attempts of locoregional control of the tumor have failed. Extensive surgery is recommended. Preoperative radiotherapy should be considered since pelvic recurrences are the leading cause of progression in squamous cell carcinoma.

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