Sensory input has an important influence on the integrity of neural circuitry. Central nervous system circuitry is programmed and reinforced by everyday experience. Even the simplest of behaviors participate in this process. A balance between inhibition and facilitation must be maintained for the CNS to function normally. For example, the bladder stores urine because of the inhibition from a closed sphincter, and relaxation of the sphincter disinhibits the bladder to permit voiding. This synergistic ‘seesaw’ in reflex neural activity preserves the functional and anatomical integrity of the lower urinary tract. Dysfunction and anatomical change results when an unnatural bias develops between inhibitory and facilitatory neural activity. Neurostimulation has an inherent conditioning effect on neural excitability and can restore the neural equilibrium. Voiding diaries are very useful in documenting these changes.

Hylden JLK, Nahin RL, Traub RJ, Dubner R: Expansion of receptive fields of spinal laminal projection neurons in rats with unilateral adjuvant-induced inflammation: The contribution of dorsal horn mechanisms. Pain 1989;44:187.
Lindholm D: Neurotrophic factors and neuronal plasticity: Is there a link? Adv Neurol 1997;73:1.
Mendonca A, Ribeiro JA: Adenosine and neuronal plasticity. Life Sci 1997;60:245.
Basebaum AI, Chi SI, Levine JD: Peripheral and central contribution to persistent expression of the c-fos proto-oncogene in spinal cord after peripheral nerve injury; in Willis WD (ed): Hyperalgesia and Allodynia. New York, Raven Press, 1992, pp 295–304.
Dubner R: Activity-dependent neuronal plasticity following tissue injury and inflammation. Trends Neurosci 1992;15:96.
Wang JJ, Ho ST, Liu HS, Tzeng JI, Tze TS, Liaw WJ: The effect of spinal versus general anesthesia on postoperative pain and analgesic requirements in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Reg Anaesth 1996;21:281.
Viel E, Brunelle P, Lalourencey L, Eledjam JJ: Does neuroplasticity have a role on postoperative pain? Cah Anesthesiol 1995;43:231.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.