Objective: To study the value of two outpatient urine tests with regard to the diagnosis and recurrence of bladder tumors. Methods: Fifty patients with a history of superficial bladder cancer were evaluated with urinary NMP22TM levels (cutoff level 10 U/ml), bladder wash karyometry (low versus intermediate and high risk) and cystoscopy. All patients were followed for 1 year. Results: Diagnostic negative and positive predictive values (NPV and PPV) of the tests were, respectively: NMP22 91.2 and 56.3%, and karyometry 80 and 33.3%. Prognostic NPV and PPV with regard to a subsequent recurrence were, respectively: NMP22 77.8 and 27.3%, and karyometry 82.6 and 50%. Conclusion: The diagnostic value of NMP22 is good. Since the 3 false-negative results were in low-stage and low-grade lesions, this test could be used as a prescreening for cystoscopy. The NPV of these tests with regard to tumor recurrence is around 80%, but only karyometry has a significant PPV. Change in the follow-up policy on the basis of these tests remains difficult. In patients with neobladders NMP22 appears to be of little use, because of the high urinary NMP22 levels in the absence of malignancy.