Detection of serum and cellular AFP and hCG has made a significant contribution in understanding and management of testicular cancer. It is essential to remember the following events in utilizing these markers: (1) Histologic diagnosis of seminoma, but AFP is elevated. There is usually an element of choriocarcinoma. (2) Histologic diagnosis of seminoma and highly elevated hCG > 100 ng/ml has usually an element of choriocarcinoma. (3) Histologic diagnosis of choriocarcinoma with an elevated serum AFP. There is usually an element of embryonal carcinoma. (4) Pathologic stage I nonseminomatous testicular cancer with elevated serum markers is either stage II or stage III. (5) In a recent study of 23 patients undergoing resection of residual nonseminomatous testicular cancer after intensive chemotherapy, 21 had either teratoma in primary tumor or bulky metastatic disease. The markers were normalized after chemotherapy and prior to resection. (6) Although normalization of these markers after chemotherapy indicates effective therapeutic response, one should look of residual tumor utilizing radiologic investigations.

This content is only available via PDF.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.