Investigation in a patient aged 46 years with decompensated heart failure and severe renal insufficiency demonstrated a small, poorly functioning right kidney and severe stenosis of the left renal artery. Cardiac decompensation was corrected and the left kidney revascularised by autotransplantation. Renal function recovered considerably (FG 75/min) and the severe hypertension was reduced. In hypertension patients by main renal artery stenosis, renal autotransplantation is recommended, since it is a safe method without technical difficulty and has given good results. The mutual dependence of hypertension and renal insufficiency is reviewed. When renal function is poor, revascularisation of the stenosed kidney will lead to recovery. The hypertension will usually improve but will always become more responsive to drug therapy.

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