Introduction: Ocrelizumab is a CD20-targeting monoclonal antibody used for treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light (NFL) chain levels are reduced in MS patients under ocrelizumab treatment indicating a preventive action against neuro-axonal degeneration. Our aim, in this preliminary study, was to explore the impact of ocrelizumab treatment on synaptic integrity through assessment of neurogranin levels. Methods: Thirteen relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients resistant to first-line immunomodulating agents were enrolled and followed up for 24 months under ocrelizumab treatment. Disease activity was monitored by periodic EDSS, MSSS, and cranial-spinal MRI assessments. No evidence of disease activity (NEDA)-3 was determined, and CSF levels of NFL (marker of neuro-axonal integrity) and neurogranin (marker of synaptic integrity) were measured by ELISA at baseline and 12-month ocrelizumab treatment. Results: Seven RRMS patients, who preserved NEDA-3 status during 24-month follow-up, showed ≥30% NFL level decrease, whereas 6 patients with stable/increased NFL levels displayed relapse, MRI lesion, or disability progression. Although most RRMS patients exhibited increased CSF levels of neurogranin under ocrelizumab treatment, patients with and without neurogranin level increase did not differ in terms of clinical features and NEDA-3 status. Baseline neurogranin levels negatively correlated with baseline EDSS scores. Conclusion: Our results confirm that NFL effectively monitors treatment response of RRMS patients under ocrelizumab treatment. Neurogranin does not appear to exhibit a similar benefit in screening of RRMS disease activity. Nevertheless, lower neurogranin levels are associated with increased disability in RRMS indicating a potential disease activity biomarker function.

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