Background: The Herpesviridae family plays a significant etiological role in central nervous system viral infections during primary infection or reactivation from a latent form. Early detection is crucial because prescribing some antivirals can prevent severe side effects or life-threatening conditions. Methods: In this study, 251 CSF specimens were collected from patients with clinical suspicion of viral encephalitis in Pars Hospital, Tehran, Iran. DNA was extracted, and a multiplex PCR was designed to investigate the presence of herpes simplex virus-1, herpes simplex virus-2, varicella zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus. Results: Overall, 59 cases of the 251 CSF samples were positive for multiplex PCR (23.5%). The most frequent positive findings were EBV and HSV, with a prevalence of 10.3% and 8.7% (5.5% HSV-1 and 3.1% HSV-2), respectively. Four co-infections were also seen in this study. Conclusions: This multiplex PCR assay detects simultaneously different herpesviruses in CSF samples of patients with suspected encephalitis in 2 rounds of PCR amplification; therefore, it is a reliable and cost-saving diagnostic method for evaluating patients infected with herpesvirus with neurological disorders.

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