Introduction: White matter lesions (WMLs) are currently considered as a cerebral microvascular disease, and hypertension is considered as its most important risk factor. This study analysis systematically evaluated the effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) on the progression of WMLs. Methods: We searched the MeSH terms: “white matter,” “blood pressure,” “hypertension,” “Leukoencephalopathy,” and “leukoaraiosis” on PubMed and Cochrane from January 2000 to August 2019. A total of 12 closely related literature were included for research. Results: The results of the meta-analysis showed that the increase of both SBP and DBP can promote the progression of WMLs (respectively, odds ratio [OR] = 2.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.86–2.94; OR = 3.13, 95% CI 3.03–3.23). Subgroup analysis found that patients with hypertension aged younger than 70 years are at a greater risk of WML progression when their DBP increased (OR = 4.69, 95% CI 3.31–6.65). Conclusion: The relationship between DBP and WMLs is closer than that of SBP. Also, the risk of WML progression in patients aged under 70 years was higher than that in patients aged over 70 years. Furthermore, when DBP is elevated in patients younger than 70 years of age, the risk of WML progression may be higher. Therefore, it is expected that more researchers will attach importance to the change in DBP and identify the range of blood pressure and strategies that control DBP, thus contributing to delay the progression of WMLs.