Background: To investigate the effect of creatine and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) combination therapy on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Parkinson's disease (PD; PD-MCI) and its influences on plasma phospholipid (PL) levels in PD-MCI. Methods: The demographic data of 75 PD-MCI patients who enrolled in this collaborative PD study were collected. These patients were evaluated using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). These 75 PD-MCI patients were randomly treated with creatine monohydrate 5 g b.i.d. and CoQ10 100 mg t.i.d. orally or placebo. MoCA evaluation and PL level measurements were performed after 12 and 18 months of treatment. Results: After 12 and 18 months of treatment, the differences in the MoCA scores of the combination therapy and control groups were statistically significant (p < 0.05 at 12 months and p < 0.01 at 18 months), and the plasma PL levels of the combination therapy group were significantly lower than those of the control group (p < 0.01 at 12 months and p < 0.001 at 18 months). Conclusions: Combination therapy with creatine and CoQ10 could delay the decline of cognitive function in PD-MCI patients and could lower their plasma PL levels; therefore, this combination therapy may have a neuroprotective function.

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