Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is commonly characterized by its motor symptoms such as resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability; however, some of the most debilitating symptoms of this disease are non-motor ones such as dementia and sialorrhea (drooling). Drooling is caused by impaired swallowing and it can have a significant impact on the quality of life. However, it is still unclear whether cognitive dysfunction could exacerbate drooling. We wanted to examine if any relationship existed between drooling and dementia in PD patients. Identifying the correlation will aid physicians to screen and initiate early management of drooling in the course of PD. This can possibly lead to improvements in the quality of life in these patients. Methods: In this retrospective study, we investigated the prevalence of drooling in 314 PD patients and further compared the difference in the prevalence of drooling in patients with dementia and without dementia. In addition, we studied the impact of gender on drooling in this patient population. Results: Our results show that a significant correlation exists between drooling and dementia in our sample of PD patients. Furthermore, in males, the correlation between the prevalence of drooling and dementia was found to be clinically significant as compared to the female population. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that drooling is a major concern in the course of PD and should therefore be addressed early and more aggressively in patients with dementia.

Schulz JB, Falkenburger BH: Neuronal pathology in Parkinson's disease. Cell Tissue Res 2004;318:135-147.
Isacson, O, Breakefield, XO: Benefits and risks of hosting animal cells in the human brain. Nat Med 1997;3: 964-969.
Taylor TN, Caudle WM, Shepherd KR, Noorian A, Jackson CR, Iuvone PM, Weinshenker D, Greene JG, Miller GW: Nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease revealed in an animal model with reduced monoamine storage capacity. J Neurosci 2009;29:8103-8113.
Ansari K, Johnson A: Olfactory function in patients with Parkinson's disease. J Chronic Dis 1975;28:493-497.
Park A, Stacy M: Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol 2009;256:293-298.
Poewe W: Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Eur J Neurol 2008;15:14-20.
Tandberg E, Larsen JP, Aarsland D, Cummings JL: The occurrence of depression in Parkinson's disease. Neurology 1996;53:175-179.
Bine JE, Frank EM, McDade HL: Dysphagia and dementia in subjects with Parkinson's disease. Dysphagia 1995;10:160-164.
Potulska A, Friedmana A, Królickib L, Spychalab A: Swallowing disorders in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2003;9:349-353.
Weintraub D, Comella CL, Horn S: Parkinson's disease. Part 3: neuropsychiatric symptoms. Am J Manag Care 2008;14:S59-S69.
Chou KL, Evatt M, Hinson V, Kompoliti K: Sialorrhea in Parkinson's disease: a review. Mov Disord 2007;22:2306-2313.
Martin BJ, Corlew MM, Wood H, Olson D, Golopol LA, Wingo M, Kirmani N: The association of swallowing dysfunction and aspiration pneumonia. Dysphagia 1994;9:1-6.
Isozaki E, Shimizua T, Takamotoa K, Horiguchib S, Hayashidab T, Odac M, Tanabea H: Vocal cord abductor paralysis (VCAP) in Parkinson's disease: difference from VCAP in multiple system atrophy. J Neurol Sci 1995;130:197-202.
Kalf JG, de Swart BJM, Borm GF, Bloem BR, Munneke M: Prevalence and definition of drooling in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review. J Neurol 2009;256:1391-1396.
Kalf JG, Smit AM, Bloem BR, Zwarts MJ, Munneke M: Impact of drooling in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol 2007;254:1227-1232.
Bloem BR, Kalf JG, Van de Kerkhof PC, Zwarts MJ: Debilitating consequences of drooling. J Neurol 2009;256:1382-1383.
American Psychiatric Association (APA): Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed 4. Washington, APA, 2000.
Bohnen NI, Müller ML, Koeppe RA, Studenski SA, Kilbourn MA, Frey KA, Albin RL: History of falls in Parkinson disease is associated with reduced cholinergic activity. J Neurol 2009;73:1670-1676.
Proulx M, de Courval FP, Wiseman MA, Panisset M: Salivary production in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2005;20:204-207.
Hely MA, Reid WGJ, Adena MA, Halliday GA, Morris JGL: The Sydney multicenter study of Parkinson's disease: the inevitability of dementia at 20 years. Mov Disord 2008;23:837-844.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.