Focal hippocampal diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesion patterns are detected in transient global amnesia (TGA) patients in different frequency. It has been speculated that acute diffusion restrictions are associated with a worse outcome. Therefore, we evaluated the influence of acute DWI lesions on the cognitive long-term outcome in TGA patients. Seventeen otherwise healthy patients with the clinical syndrome of TGA, who had MRI investigations on admission as well as 1 day later, were investigated with a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery 2 years later. Acute hippocampal DWI lesions in TGA patients were detected in almost two thirds of the patients. Psychometric evaluation revealed no differences in cognitive performance between patients with and without DWI lesions as well as compared to healthy subjects. In addition, no relapse of the attack has been recognized in either group of TGA patients.

1.
Bartsch T, Deuschl G: Transient amnesia: functional anatomy and clinical implications. Lancet Neurol 2010;9:205–214.
2.
Nakada T, Kwee IL, Fujii Y, Knight RT: High-field, T2 reversed MRI of the hippocampus in transient global amnesia. Neurology 2005;64:1170–1174.
3.
Bartsch T, Alfke K, Stingele R, et al: Selective affection of hippocampal CA-1 neurons in patients with transient global amnesia without long-term sequelae. Brain 2006;129:2874–2884.
4.
Ueno H, Naka H, Ohshita T, Wakabayashi S, Matsumoto M: Serial changes in delayed focal hippocampal lesions in patients with transient global amnesia. Hiroshima J Med Sci 2010;59:77–81.
5.
Weon YC, Kim JH, Lee JS, Kim SY: Optimal diffusion-weighted imaging protocol for lesion detection in transient global amnesia. Am J Neuroradiol 2008;29:1324–1328.
6.
Mazzuchi A, Moretti G, Caffara P, Parma M: Neuropsychological functions in the follow-up of transient global amnesia. Brain 1980;103:697–716.
7.
Hodges JR, Oxbury SM: Persistent memory impairment following transient global amnesia. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 1990;12:904–920.
8.
Cattaino G, Querin F, Pomes A, Piazza P: Transient global amnesia. Acta Neurol Scand 1984;70:385–390.
9.
Borroni B, Agosti C, Brambilla C, Vergani V, Cottini E, Akkawi N, Padovani A: Is transient global amnesia a risk factor for amnestic mild cognitive impairment? J Neurol 2004;251:1125–1127.
10.
Caffarra P, Moretti G, Mazzuchi A, Parma M: Neuropsychological testing during a transient global amnesia episode and its follow-up. Acta Neurol Scand 1981;63:44–50.
11.
LePira F, Giuffrida S, Macvi T, Reggio E, Zappala G, Perciavalle V: Cognitive findings after transient global amnesia: role of prefrontal cortex. Appl Neuropsychol 2005;12:212–217.
12.
Caffarra P, Concari L, Gardini S, Spaggiari S, Dieci F, Copelli S, Ghetti C, Venneri A: Recovery from transient global amnesia following restoration of hippocampal and fronto-cingulate perfusion. Behav Neurol 2010;22:131–139.
13.
Caplan L: Transient global amnesia. Characteristic features and overview; in Markowitsch HJ (ed): Transient Global Amnesia and Related Disorders. Toronto, Hogrefe and Huber, 1990, pp 15–27.
14.
Winbeck K, Etgen T, von Einsiedel HG, Röttinger M, Sander D: DWI in transient global amnesia and TIA: proposal for an ischaemic origin of TGA. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005;76:438–441.
15.
Toledo M, Pujadas F, Grivé E, Alvarez-Sabin J, Quintana M, Rovira A: Lack of evidence for arterial ischemia in transient global amnesia. Stroke 2008;39:476–479.
16.
Enzinger C, Thimary F, Kapeller P, et al: Transient global amnesia: diffusion-weighted imaging lesions and cerebrovascular disease. Stroke 2008;39:2219–2225.
17.
Guillery-Girard B, Desgranges B, Urban C, Piolino P, de la Sayette V, Eustache F: The dynamic time course of memory recovery in transient global amnesia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2004;75:1532–1540.
18.
Hodges JR, Ward CD: Observations during transient global amnesia. A behavioural and neuropsychological study of five cases. Brain 1989;112:595–620.
19.
Uttner I, Weber S, Freund W, Schmitz B, Ramspott M, Huber R: Transient global amnesia – full recovery without persistent cognitive impairment. Eur Neurol 2007;58:146–151.
20.
Prabhakaran S, Chong JY, Sacco RL: Impact of abnormal diffusion-weighted imaging results on short-term outcome following transient ischemic attack. Arch Neurol 2007;64:1105–1109.
21.
Auyeung M, Tsoi TH, Cheung CM, Fong DY, Li R, Chan JK, Lau KY: Association of diffusion-weighted imaging abnormalities and recurrence in transient global amnesia. J Clin Neurosci 2011;18:531–534.
22.
Sedlaczek O, Hirsch JG, Grips E, Peters CN, Gass A, Woehrle J, Hennerici M: Detection of delayed focal MR changes in the lateral hippocampus in transient global amnesia. Neurology 2004;62:2165–2170.
23.
Ryoo I, Kim JH, Kim S, Choi BS, Jung C, Hwang SI: Lesion detectability on diffusion-weighted imaging in transient global amnesia: the influence of imaging timing and magnetic field strength. Neuroradiology 2011. [Epub ahead of print].
24.
Härting C, Markowitsch HJ, Neufeld H, Calabrese P, Deisinger K, Kessler J: Deutsche Adaptation der revidierten Fassung der Wechsler Memory Scale. Bern, Huber, 1999.
25.
Ilmberger J: Deutsche Version des California Verbal Learning Tests. München, Institut für Medizinische Psychologie der Universität München, 1988.
26.
Meyers JE, Meyers KR: Rey Complex Figure Test and Recognition Trial. Professional Manual. Odessa, Psychological Assesment Resources Inc., 1995.
27.
Benton AL, Hamsher K, Varney, NR, Spreen O: Contribution to Neuropsychological Assessment. New York, Oxford University Press, 1983.
28.
Kessler J, Denzler P, Markowitsch HJ: Demenztest: Eine Testbatterie zur Erfassung kognitiver Einschränkungen im Alter, ed 2, revised. Göttingen, Beltz Test GmbH, 1999.
29.
Zimmermann P, Fimm B: Testbatterie zur Aufmerksamkeitsprüfung. Freiburg, PSYTEST, 1993.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.