Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate a short-term non-specific home-based 6-week cognitive training for its effect on neuropsychological deficits and depression. Subjects and Methods: Cognitive and affective abilities of patients with MS were compared with healthy controls using an identical neuropsychological test battery. Re-testing was performed after 6 weeks of cognitive home-based training. Results: Patients already showed cognitive deficits at baseline. Cognitive training resulted in a significant improvement in several skills, in particular with respect to visuoconstructive and figural long-term memory. In addition, prior depressed mood and quality of life improved in MS patients during the training period and remained up to 6 months. Conclusions: Our study corroborated the early appearance of neuropsychological deficits in MS. Mental training, although unspecific, lead to improvements with respect to attention and memory functions in patients, and to some degree in control subjects, which may last for more than 6 months.

1.
Rao SM, Leo GJ, Bernardin L, Unverzagt F: Cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. I. Frequency, patterns, and prediction. Neurology 1991;41:685–691.
2.
Landro NI, Sletvold H, Celius EG: Memory functioning and emotional changes in early phase multiple sclerosis. Arch Clin Neuropsych 2000;15:37–46.
3.
Haase CG, Tinnefeld M, Lienemann M, et al: Depression and cognitive impairment in disability-free early multiple sclerosis. Behav Neurol 2003;14:39–45.
4.
Amato MP, Ponziani G, Siracusa G, Sorbi S: Cognitive dysfunction in early-onset multiple sclerosis: a reappraisal after 10 years. Arch Neurol 2001;58:1602–1606.
5.
Haase CG, Tinnefeld M, Ganz RE, et al: Cognitive but not mood dysfunction develops in multiple sclerosis during 7 years of follow-up. Eur Neurol 2004;52:92–95.
6.
Achiron A, Barak Y: Cognitive impairment in probable multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003;74:443–446.
7.
Huijbregts SCJ, Kalkers NF, De Sonneville LMJ, et al: Differences in cognitive impairment of relapsing remitting, secondary, and primary progressive MS. Neurology 2004;63:335–339.
8.
Denney DR, Sworowski L, Lynch SG: Cognitive impairment in three subtypes of multiple sclerosis. Arch Clin Neuropsych 2005;20:967–981.
9.
Tinnefeld M, Wilhelm H, Daum I, et al: Cognitive deficits in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Akt Neurol 2007;34:1–6.
10.
Ruggieri RM, Palermo R, Vitello G, et al: Cognitive impairment in patients suffering from relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis with EDSS ≤3.5. Acta Neurol Scand 2003;108:323–326.
11.
Haase CG, Lienemann M, Faustmann PM: Neuropsychological deficits but not coping strategies are related to physical disability in multiple sclerosis. Eur Arch Psych Clin Neurosci 2008;258:35–39.
12.
Griffiths SY, Yamamoto A, Boudreau VG, et al: Memory interference in multiple sclerosis. J Int Neuropsych Soc 2005;11:737–746.
13.
Tsivgoulis G, Triantafyllou N, Papageorgiou C, et al: Associations of the expanded disability status scale with anxiety and depression in multiple sclerosis outpatients. Act Neurol Scand 2007;115:67–72.
14.
McCarthy M, Beaumont JG, Thompson R, Peacock S: Modality-specific aspects of sustained and divided attention performance in multiple sclerosis. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2005;20:705–718.
15.
Tinnefeld M, Treitz K, Haase CG, et al: Attention and memory dysfunctions in mild multiple sclerosis. Eur Arch Psych Clin Neurosci 2005;55:319–326.
16.
Archibald CJ, Fisk JD: Information processing efficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2000;22:686–701.
17.
Lengenfelder J, Bryant D, Diamond BJ, et al: Processing speed interacts with working memory efficacy in multiple sclerosis. Arch Clin Neuropsych 2006;21:229–238.
18.
Barker-Collo SL: Quality of life in multiple sclerosis: does information-processing speed have an independent effect? Arch Clin Neuropsych 2006;21:167–174.
19.
De Sonneville LMJ, Boringa JB, Reuling IEW, et al: Information processing characteristics in subtypes of multiple sclerosis. Neuropsychologia 2002;40:1751–1765.
20.
Denney DR, Lynch SG, Parmenter BA, Horne N: Cognitive impairment in relapsing and primary progressive multiple sclerosis: mostly a matter of speed. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2004;10:948–956.
21.
Arnett PA, Rao SM, Bernardin L, et al: Relationship between frontal lobe lesions and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in patients with multiple sclerosis. Neurology 1994;44:420–425.
22.
Gold SM, Schulz H, Monch A, et al: Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis does not affect reliability and validity of self-report health measures. Mult Scler 2003;9:404–410.
23.
Hildebrandt H, Brokate B, Lanz M, et al: Executive functions in patients with multiple sclerosis. Akt Neurol 2003;30:118–126.
24.
Arnett PA, Rao SM, Grafman J, et al: Executive functions in multiple sclerosis: an analysis of temporal ordering, semantic encoding, and planning abilities. Neuropsychol 1997;11:535–544.
25.
Reicker LI, Tombaugh TN, Walker L, Freedman MS: Reaction time: an alternative method for assessing the effects of multiple sclerosis on information processing speed. Arch Clin Neuropsych 2007;22:655–664.
26.
Kesselring J, Klement U: Cognitive and affective disturbances in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol 2001;248:180–183.
27.
Middelton LS, Denney DR, Lynch SG, Parmenter B: The relationship between perceived and objective cognitive functioning in multiple sclerosis. Arch Clin Neuropsych 2006;21:487–494.
28.
Baller G: Cognitive Training: 2-Week Course to Improve Cognitive Performance, Parts I-III. Bad Honnef, Hippocampus, 2005.
29.
Gold SM, Heesen C, Schulz H, et al: Disease specific quality of life instruments in multiple sclerosis: validation of the Hamburg Quality of Life Questionnaire in Multiple Sclerosis (HAQUAMS). Mult Scler 2001;7:119–130.
30.
Mendoza RJ, Pittenger DJ, Weinstein CS: Unit management of depression of patients with multiple sclerosis using cognitive remediation strategies: a preliminary study. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2001;15:9–14.
31.
Birnboim S, Miller A: Cognitive rehabilitation for multiple sclerosis patients with executive dysfunction. J Cog Rehab 2004;22:11–18.
32.
Plohmann AM, Kappos L, Ammann W, et al: Computer assisted retraining of attention impairments in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 1998;64:455–462.
33.
Lincoln NB, Dent A, Harding J, et al: Evaluation of cognitive assessment and cognitive intervention for people with multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 2002;72:93–98.
34.
Solari A, Motta A, Mendozzi L, et al: Computer-aided retraining of memory and attention in people with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind controlled trial. J Neurol Sci 2004;222:99–104.
35.
Jonsson A, Korfitzen EM, Heltberg A, et al: Effects of neuropsychological treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurol Scand 1993;88:394–400.
36.
Mendozzi L, Pugnetti L: Computer-assisted memory training of patients with multiple sclerosis. Ital J Neurol Sci 1998;19:431–434.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.