The orthographic system of the Korean language consists of both phonogram (Hangul) and ideogram (Hanja). We report 2 patients who revealed selective impairment in reading either of orthographies after the brain damages. YJ, a 67-year-old man, showed Broca’s aphasia and severe apraxia of speech after a stroke in the left inferior parietal lobe. He demonstrated predominant difficulties in reading phonogram. KS, a 51-year-old woman, had an intracerebral hemorrhage in the left parietal lobe. She showed anomic aphasia and a selective impairment on reading ideogram. These findings support the notion that recognition of visual words is processed in different ways depending on the characteristics of orthographic systems.

1.
Hayashi MM, Ulatowska HK, Sasanuma S: Subcortical aphasia with deep dyslexia: a case study of a Japanese patient. Brain Language1985;25:293–313.
2.
Kawahata N, Nagata K, Shishido F: Alexia with agraphia due to the posterior inferior temporal lobe lesion-neuropsychological analysis and its pathogenetic mechanisms. Brain Language 1988;33:296–310.
3.
Kawamura M, Hirayama K, Hasegawa K, Takahashi N, Yamamura A: Alexia with agraphia of Kanji (Japanese morphograms). J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry1987;50:1125–1129.
4.
Mochiauki H, Ohtomo R: Pure alexia in Japanese and agraphia without alexia in Kanji: the ability dissociation between reading and writing in Kanji vs. Kana. Arch Neurol 1988;45:1157–1159.
5.
Sasanuma S: Kanji versus Kana processing in alexia with transient agraphia: a case report. Cortex1974;10:89–97.
6.
Yamatori A: Ideogram reading in alexia. Brain1975;98:231–238.
7.
Yamatori A, Motomura N, Endo M, Mitani Y: Category-specific alexia and a neuropsychological model of reading (in Japanese). Higher Brain Funct Res1985;5:23–27.
8.
Soma, Y, Sugishita M, Kitamura K, Maruyama S, Imanaga H: Lexical agraphia in the Japanese language: pure agraphia for Kanji due to left posteroinferior temporal lesions. Brain 1989;112:1549–1561.
9.
Sakurai Y, Takeuchi S, Takada T, Horiuchi E, Nakase H, Sakuta M: Alexia caused by a fusiform or posterior inferior temporal lesion. J Neurol Sci 2000;178:42–51.
10.
Lee KM: Functional MRI comparison between reading ideographic and phonographic scripts of one language. Brain Language 2004;91:245–251.
11.
Lee DH, Lee HJ, Lee EJ, Moon CH, Yoo JW, Na DK, Nam KC: A fMRI study of word recognition in Chinese and Korean. Korean J Commun Disord 2001;6:105–130.
12.
Kwon JC, Lee HJ, Chin J, Lee YM, Kim H, Na DL: Hanja Alexia with agraphia after left posterior inferior temporal lobe infarction: a case study. J Korean Med Sci2002;17:91–95.
13.
Caplan D: Language: Structure, Processing and Disorders. Cambridge, MIT, 1996.
14.
Patterson KE, Marshall KC, Coltheart M: Surface Dyslexia: Cognitive and Neuropsychological Studies of Phonological Reading. London, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1985.
15.
Iwata M: Kanji versus Kana: neuropsychological correlates of the Japanese writing system. Trends Neurosci 1984;7:290–293.
16.
Ellis AW, Young AW: Human Cognitive Neuropsychology. London, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1987.
17.
Sugishita M, Otomo K, Kabe S, Yunoki K: A critical appraisal of neuropsychological correlates of Japanese ideogram (Kanji) and phonogram (Kana) reading. Brain1992;115:1563–1585.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.