A critical analysis of cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and chorea is presented. Choreatic movements occurred early in the course of the disease in most cases; the duration varied from several days to 3 years. No sex predominance was found and no relationship could be demonstrated between chorea and other neurological signs, or between chorea and other SLE manifestations. Also, the neuropathological findings offered no simple explanation for the emergence of chorea. Immunological pathomechanisms might be present.