The carcinogens, N-acetyl-aminofluorene, 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene, 3,4-benzpyrene and 3-methylcholanthrene, increase the activity of the soluble liver enzyme D-T-diaphorase. This action is observed 24 h after the administration of these chemicals to rats. Dicumarol blocks this effect. Dicumarol does not inhibit the increase in activity of the microsomal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase system as elicited by 3,4-benz(a)pyrene and 3-methylcholanthrene. The functional significance of these findings and the possible role of cytosolic enzymic changes in chemical toxicity are discussed.