Introduction: Chemsex has been defined until now as the use of specific psychoactive substances during sexual activities in men who have sex with men (MSM) contexts to facilitate, enhance, and prolong the experience. Many studies have investigated this phenomenon in specific communities, such as MSM, or have explored the risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of chemsex in an Italian group and describe its main characteristics. Additionally, the study aimed to suggest prevention strategies addressing the risks associated with drug use. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study. The survey was conducted among 1,828 individuals residing in Italy. Data were collected through a self-completed online survey consisting of 44 questions. Results: 248 people (13.6%) disclosed that they had practiced chemsex, 89 of which (35.9%) were female. Moreover, 13 people (5%) defined themselves as addicted to chemsex; 173 people (69.8%) would like to have more information about the risks related to chemsex, and 79 people (31.8%) would like to talk about this to a professional working in the addiction field. Discussion: The prevalence found in our Italian survey is consistent with findings from other studies. Notably, our survey reveals the presence of chemsex among women. Our results emphasize the necessity for a more comprehensive understanding of chemsex, highlighting the significance of engaging specialized services such as addiction units, STD outpatient clinics, and mental health services. These healthcare facilities can effectively share information and implement risk prevention campaigns focused on chemsex.

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