Background: Clinicians in the field of drug addiction have started to exploit the growth of Technology-Based Interventions (TBIs). However, there is little information on how health personnel evaluate them. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 20 European experts. Results: All of the interviewees recognised TBIs as a valuable tool to improve the management of substance-use disorders (SUDs). Most interviewees indicated that combining both traditional face-to-face therapist-patient clinic appointment with TBIs is probably the most effective method. Most interviewees agree that TBIs are valuable tools to overcome both physical and social barriers, and hence significantly facilitate the access to treatment. Poor infrastructure and lack of digital literacy are recognised as major barriers to the diffusion of these tools. Conclusions: The application of various forms of technology in SUD treatment is an interesting development for the European Union. Technical and non-technical barriers exist and impede their full exploitation.

1.
Rehm J, Manthey J, Struzzo P, Gual A, Wojnar M: Who receives treatment for alcohol use disorders in the European Union? A cross-sectional representative study in primary and specialized health care. Eur Psychiatry 2015;30:885-893.
2.
European Commission (EC): World No Tobacco Day: Eurobarometer Reveals That Tobacco Use is Down by 2 Percentage Points in the EU Since 2012, but 26% of Europeans are Still Smokers. 2015, pp 39-40.
3.
European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA): European Drug Report: Trends and Developments, 2016.
4.
Marsch LA, Dallery J: Advances in the psychosocial treatment of addiction: the role of technology in the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial treatment. Psychiatr Clin North Am 2012;35:481-493.
5.
Marsch LA, Carroll KM, Kiluk BD: Technology-based interventions for the treatment and recovery management of substance use disorders: a JSAT special issue. J Subst Abuse Treat 2014;46:1-4.
6.
Wood SK, Eckley L, Hughes K, Hardcastle KA, Bellis MA, Schrooten J, et al: Computer-based programmes for the prevention and management of illicit recreational drug use: a systematic review. Addict Behav 2014;39:30-38.
7.
Kiluk BD, Carroll KM: New developments in behavioral treatments for substance use disorders. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2013;15:420.
8.
Barak A, Klein B, Proudfoot JG: Defining internet-supported therapeutic interventions. Ann Behav Med 2009;38:4-17.
9.
Hoch E, Preuss UW, Ferri M, Simon R: Digital interventions for problematic cannabis users in non-clinical settings: findings from a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Addict Res 2016;22:233-242.
10.
World Health Organization (WHO): Few Smokers Get the Help they Need. 2017. http://www.who.int/tobacco/mpower/publications/en_tfi_mpower_brochure_o.pdf?ua=1 (cited June 20, 2017).
11.
European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA): Treatment of Cannabis-Related Disorders in Europe, 2015.
12.
Gates P, Copeland J, Swift W, Martin G: Barriers and facilitators to cannabis treatment. Drug Alcohol Rev 2012;31:311-319.
13.
Wallhed Finn S, Bakshi AS, Andréasson S: Alcohol consumption, dependence, and treatment barriers: perceptions among nontreatment seekers with alcohol dependence. Subst Use Misuse 2014;49:762-769.
14.
Donker T, Blankers M, Hedman E, Ljótsson B, Petrie K, Christensen H: Economic evaluations of internet interventions for mental health: a systematic review. Psychol Med 2015;45:3357-3376.
15.
Gainsbury S, Blaszczynski A: A systematic review of internet-based therapy for the treatment of addictions. Clin Psychol Rev 2011;31:490-498.
16.
Ramsey A, Lord S, Torrey J, Marsch L, Lardiere M: Paving the way to successful implementation: identifying key barriers to use of technology-based therapeutic tools for behavioral health care. J Behav Health Serv Res 2016;43:54-70.
17.
European Health Parliament. Digital Skills for Health Professionals. Committee on Digital Skills for Health Professionals. 2016. http://www.healthparliament.eu/documents/10184/0/EHP_PAPERS_2016_DigitalSkillsForHealthProfessionals_SCHERM.pdf/e07b23d9-e762-4f96-934b-d23e6c5d17af (cited June 20, 2017).
18.
King VL, Stoller KB, Kidorf M, Kindbom K, Hursh S, Brady T, et al: Assessing the effectiveness of an Internet-based videoconferencing platform for delivering intensified substance abuse counseling. J Subst Abuse Treat 2009;36:331-338.
19.
VanDeMark NR, Burrell NR, Lamendola WF, Hoich CA, Berg NP, Medina E: An exploratory study of engagement in a technology-supported substance abuse intervention. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2010;5:10.
20.
McClure EA, Acquavita SP, Harding E, Stitzer ML: Utilization of communication technology by patients enrolled in substance abuse treatment. Drug Alcohol Depend 2013;129:145-150.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.