Objective: This study examined the extent to which a retrospective measure of parental provision of the first alcoholic beverage was related to current heavy episodic drinking and current responsible drinking practices. Sample: 608 14- to 17-year-olds from the 2007 Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey. Measures: Source of first alcoholic beverage (friends/parents/others), source of current alcohol, age of onset of alcohol use, current responsible drinking practices, and proportion of current friends who drink. Results: Binary logistic and multiple regression procedures revealed that parental provision of an adolescent’s first alcoholic beverage predicted lower current heavy episodic drinking, and responsible drinking mediated this association. Discussion: The results suggested that for adolescents who become alcohol users, parental provision of the first drink may reduce subsequent alcohol-related risks compared to introduction to alcohol by friends and other sources. Alcohol-related risks remain significant for adolescents who consume alcohol, independent of who is the provider.

1.
Kypri K, et al: Drinking and alcohol-related harm among New Zealand university students: findings from a national web-based survey. Alcoholism Clin Exp Res 2009;33:307–314.
2.
Rothman EF, et al: The timing of alcohol use and sexual initiation among a sample of Black, Hispanic, and White adolescents. J Ethnicity Subst Abuse 2009;8:129–145.
3.
Fergusson DM, Boden JM, Horwood LJ: Tests of causal links between alcohol abuse or dependence and major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2009;66:260–266.
4.
Palmer RHC, et al: Developmental epidemiology of drug use and abuse in adolescence and young adulthood: evidence of generalized risk. Drug Alcohol Depend 2009;102:78–87.
5.
Toumbourou JW, et al: Interventions to reduce harm associated with adolescent substance use. Lancet 2007;369:1391–1401.
6.
Johnston LD, et al: Monitoring the Future national results on adolescent drug use: overview of key findings, 2007. NIH Publ No 08-6418. Bethesda, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2008.
7.
SAMHSA, Results from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Rockville, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2008.
8.
Donovan JE, et al: Really underage drinkers: alcohol use among elementary students. Alcoholism Clin Exp Res 2004;28:341–349.
9.
Johnston LD, et al: Monitoring the Future national results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings, 2009. NIH Publ No 10-7583. Bethesda, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2010, p 77.
10.
Hayes L, et al: Parenting Influences on Adolescent Alcohol Use. Canberra, Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2004.
11.
White V, Hayman J: Australian secondary school students’ use of alcohol in 2005. Canberra, Drug Strategy Branch, Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, 2006.
12.
Kelly AB: Adolescent alcohol-related harm reduction: realities, innovations, and challenges; in Marlatt GA, Larimer ME, Witkiewitz K (eds): Harm Reduction: Pragmatic Strategies for Managing High-Risk Behaviors. New York, Guilford Press, 2011, pp 318–338.
13.
Bandura A: A sociocognitive analysis of substance abuse: an agentic perspective. Psychol Sci 1999;10:214–217.
14.
Bandura A: Social-learning theory of identificatory processes; in Goslin DA (ed): Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research. Chicago, Rand McNally, 1969, pp 213–262.
15.
Ryan SM, Jorm AF, Lubman DI: Parenting factors associated with reduced adolescent alcohol use: a systematic review of longitudinal studies. Aust NZ J Psychiatry 2010;44:774–783.
16.
Donaldson L: Guidance on the consumption of alcohol by children and young people: a report by the Chief Medical Officer, 2009 [http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_110258].
17.
NHMRC: Australian Guidelines to Reduce Health Risks from Drinking Alcohol. National Health and Medical Research Council, Canberra, 2009.
18.
Brown SA, et al: Neurocognitive functioning of adolescents: effects of protracted alcohol use. Alcoholism Clin Exp Res 2000;24:164–171.
19.
Foley KL, et al: Adults’ approval and adolescents’ alcohol use. J Adolesc Health 2004;34:345.e17.
20.
Bellis MA, et al: Predictors of risky alcohol consumption in school children and their implications for preventing alcohol-related harm. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2007;2:15.
21.
Warner LA, White HR: Longitudinal effects of age at onset and first drinking situations on problem drinking. Subst Use Misuse 2003;38:1983–2016.
22.
Komro KA, et al: Effects of home access and availability of alcohol on young adolescents’ alcohol use. Addiction 2007;102:1597–1608.
23.
Jackson C, Henriksen L, Dickinson D: Alcohol-specific socialization, parenting behaviors and alcohol use by children. J Stud Alcohol 1999;60:362–367.
24.
Danielsson A, Rolemsjo A, Temgstrom A: Heavy episodic drinking in early adolescence: gender-specific risk and protective factors. Subst Use Misuse 2011;46:633–643.
25.
Capaldi DM, et al: Growth in alcohol use in at-risk adolescent boys: two-part random effects prediction models. Drug Alcohol Depend 2009;105:109–117.
26.
Kelly AB, et al: Gender differences in the impact of families on alcohol use: a lagged longitudinal study of pre-teens. Addiction 2011;106:1427–1436.
27.
Kelly AB, et al: Family risks for early alcohol use: evidence for gender-specific risk processes. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2011;72:399–407.
28.
Kelly AB, et al: The influence of parents, siblings, and peers on pre- and early-teen smoking: a multi-level model. Drug Alcohol Rev 2011;30:381–387.
29.
AIHW: National Drug Strategy Household Survey: detailed findings. Drug statistics series No 22. 2008. Canberra, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2007.
30.
AIHW: National Drug Strategy Household Survey: First results. Drug statistics series No 20. 2008. Canberra, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2007.
31.
ABS: Socio-Economic Indices for Areas. Canberra, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2009.
32.
Rubin DB: Multiple Imputation for Nonresponse in Surveys. Wiley Online Library, 1987, vol 519.
33.
Royston P: Multiple imputation of missing values: update. Stata J 2005;5:188–201.
34.
StataCorp, Stata Statistical Software: Release 11. College Station, StataCorp LP, 2009.
35.
Kobus K: Peers and adolescent smoking. Addiction 2003;98(suppl 1):37–55.
36.
Curran PJ, Stice R, Chassin L: The relation between adolescent alcohol use and peer alcohol use: a longitudinal random coefficients model. J Consult Clin Psychol 1997;65:130–140.
37.
Simons-Morton B: Prospective association of peer influence, school engagement, drinking expectancies, and parent expectations with drinking initiation among sixth graders. Addict Behav 2004;29:299–309.
38.
Habib C, et al: The importance of family management, closeness with father and family structure in early adolescent alcohol use. Addiction 2010;105:1750–1758.
39.
Barnes GM, et al: Effects of parental monitoring and peer deviance on substance use and delinquency. J Marriage Family 2006;68:1084–1104.
40.
Beck KH, Boyle JR, Boekeloo BO: Parental monitoring and adolescent drinking: Results of a 12-month follow-up. Am J Health Behav 2004;28:272–279.
41.
Oxford ML, et al: Preadolescent predictors of substance initiation: a test of both the direct and mediated effect of family social control factors on deviant peer associations and substance initiation. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2001;27:599–616.
42.
Shillington AM, et al: Parental monitoring: can it continue to be protective among high-risk adolescents? J Child Adolesc Subst Abuse 2005;15:1–15.
43.
Ryan SM, et al: Parent strategies for reducing adolescent alcohol use: a Delphi consensus study. BMC Publ Health J 2011;11:13.
44.
Cleveland MJ, et al: Does individual risk moderate the effect of contextual-level protective factors? A latent class analysis of substance use. J Prevent Intervent Commun 2010;38:213–228.
45.
King KM, Chassin L: Mediating and moderated effects of adolescent behavioral undercontrol and parenting in the prediction of drug use disorders in emerging adulthood. Psychol Addict Behav 2004;18:239–249.
46.
Luthar SS, Cicchetti D, Becker B: The construct of resilience: a critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Dev 2000;71:543–562.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.