Background: This study evaluated the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with extrahepatic metastases who can undergo hepatectomy. Methods: A total of 32 patients who underwent hepatectomy for HCC with extrahepatic metastases, including lymph node and/or distant metastases were recruited for this study. Results: Fourteen patients had lymph node metastasis only, 16 had distant metastasis only, and 2 had both metastasis types during preoperative diagnosis. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rate of all patients was 17.9%, and the median survival time (MST) was 11.8 months. Univariate analysis revealed that intrahepatic maximal tumor size, intrahepatic tumor number, and intrahepatic tumor control after hepatectomy were significant factors influencing OS (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that independent risk factors for OS were intrahepatic maximal tumor size and intrahepatic tumor number (p < 0.05). The MST and 3-year OS rate of patients with maximal tumor size <100 mm and intrahepatic tumor number ≤2 were 39.0 months and 51.9%, respectively. Conclusions: Hepatectomy is not recommended for HCC patients with extrahepatic metastasis with ≥3 intrahepatic tumors, even when all intrahepatic tumors can be eliminated via hepatectomy. Aggressive surgery may be justified for HCC patients with ≤2 intrahepatic tumors and maximal tumor size <100 mm, irrespective of vascular invasion.

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