Background: Chromogranin A (CgA) is often used in metastatic patients with nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NF-pNET). The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of CgA in patients with low tumor burden. Methods: Resectable patients with NF-pNET without metastases at time of diagnosis were included between 2002 and 2013 in the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam. CgA was determined at time of diagnosis and during follow-up according to a standardized method. The upper reference range was 94 µg/l. Results: Overall, 47 patients were included in this study. CgA was elevated preoperatively in only 10 patients (27%). In the detection of metastases during follow-up, the positive predictive value for CgA was 50% and negative predictive value was 81%. In 50% of the patients with an elevated CgA during follow-up, this test result was false-positive. Conclusions: The diagnostic accuracy of CgA was low preoperatively in patients with resectable NF-pNET and low tumor burden. In the detection of recurrent disease after curative resection of NF-pNET, the diagnostic accuracy of CgA was moderate (50%). We conclude that the routine measurement of CgA at time of diagnosis or during follow-up after curative resection had limited value in patients with resectable NF-pNET.

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