Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex disease that is thought to be triggered by environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals. Twin studies have estimated the heritability of AD to be approximately 75%, with the null (loss-of-function) mutations of the gene encoding filaggrin (FLG) (chromosome 1q21.3) as the strongest known genetic risk factor. The discovery of the filaggrin gene was important in the emerging model for AD pathogenesis, combining skin barrier function with adaptive and innate immunity. Assisted by the recent development of large-scale high-throughput genomics, more than 30 genetic loci have been linked to AD across different populations. Identification of these loci, together with functional studies, has already provided new insights into disease biology and identified novel drug targets. Further, these susceptibility loci are laying the groundwork for phenome-wide association studies to test their multiple phenotype relationships and application of Mendelian randomization to investigate causal relationships. Despite many known genes, a majority of the genetic risk for AD is yet unexplored. Therefore, studies investigating refined phenotype groups, low-frequency and rare genetic variation, gene-gene and/or gene-environment interactions, epigenetic mechanisms and data from multi-omics technologies are warranted. In this review, we describe genetic discoveries for AD, including results from candidate gene studies, studies of AD-like genetic diseases, genome-wide association studies and genetic sequencing studies. We explain how some of these genetic discoveries have unraveled new mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of AD and exemplify how personal genetic data could be used for preventive strategies and a tailored treatment regimen (i.e., precision medicine).

This content is only available via PDF.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.